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North Carolina State Library 



Raleigh A/ 



NORTH CAROLINA 
DEPARTMENT OF CONSERVATION AND DEVELOPMENT 

William P. Saunders, Director 



DIVISION OF MINERAL RESOURCES 
Jasper L. Stuckey, State Geologist 



BULLETIN NUMBER 70 



UPPER CRETACEOUS OSTRACODA 
FROM NORTH CAROLINA 



By 

Philip Monroe Brown 

Geologist, United States Geological Survey 



PREPARED COOPERATIVELY BY THE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY, 
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR 



1957 



North Carolina State Library 

Raleigh H Q 



NORTH CAROLINA 
DEPARTMENT OF CONSERVATION AND DEVELOPMENT 

William P. Saunders, Director 



DIVISION OF MINERAL RESOURCES 
Jasper L. Stuckey, State Geologist 



BULLETIN NUMBER 70 



UPPER CRETACEOUS OSTRACODA 
FROM NORTH CAROLINA 



By 

Philip Monroe Brown 

Geologist, United States Geological Survey 



PREPARED COOPERATIVELY BY THE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY, 
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR 



1957 



MEMBERS OF THE BOARD OF CONSERVATION AND DEVELOPMENT 

GOVERNOR LUTHER H. HODGES, Chairman Raleigh 

MILES J. SMITH, First Vice Chairman Salisbury 

WALTER J. DAMTOFT, Second Vice Chairman Canton 

CHARLES S. ALLEN .". Durham 

W. B. AUSTIN Jefferson 

F. J. BOLING Siler City 

H. C. BUCHAN, JR North Wilkesboro 

SCROOP W. ENLOE, JR Spruce Pine 

ROBERT M. HANES , Winston-Salem 

LEO H. HARVEY Kinston 

CHARLES H. JENKINS Ahoskie 

AMOS R. KEARNS , High Point 

CECIL MORRIS Atlantic 

HUGH M. MORTON % Wilmington 

W. EUGENE SIMMONS Tarboro 

T. MAX WATSON Spindale 



LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL 



Raleigh, North Carolina 
April 30, 1957 



To His Excellency, HONORABLE LUTHER H. HODGES 
Governor of North Carolina 



Sir: 



I have the honor to submit herewith manuscript for publication as Bulletin No. 70, "Upper 
Cretaceous Ostracoda from North Carolina," by Philip M. Brown. 

This report is a product of the program on ground-water investigation being carried out by the 
Department of Conservation and Development in cooperation with the United States Geological 
Survey. It contains information that should be of value in the interpretation of the geology, ground- 
water resources, and potential mineral deposits of the Upper Cretaceous formations of North 
Carolina. 

Respectfully submitted, 

WILLIAM P. SAUNDERS 

Director 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2013 



http://archive.org/details/uppercretaceouso1957brow 



UPPER CRETACEOUS OSTRACODA FROM NORTH CAROLINA 

By 
Philip Monroe Brown 1 



Abstract 



Fifty-six species of Upper Cretaceous Ostracoda from ten exposures in North Carolina and one 
exposure in South Carolina are described and illustrated. Twenty-seven of the species are new. The 
following genera, one of which is new, are represented in the material : Cytherella Jones, Cytherel- 
loidea Alexander, Bairdia McCoy, Bairdoppilata Coryell, Sample, and Jennings, Cytheridea (Haplo- 
cytheridea) Stephenson, Cytheridea (Clithro cytheridea) Stephenson, Alatacythere Murray and Hussey, 
Brachycythere Alexander, Trachyleberis Brady, Platycythereis Triebel, Protocythere Triebel, Prog- 
onocythere Sylvester-Bradley, Cytheropteron (Cytheropteron) Sars, Cytheropteron (Eocytheropter- 
on) Alexander, Velarocythere Brown, Cytherideis Jones, Monoceratina Roth, Loxoconcha Sars, Ortho- 
notacythere Alexander, Cytherura Sars, and Eucytherura Muller. A checklist showing relative abun- 
dance of specimens in outcrop and denoting the occurrence of species in strata penetrated by water 
wells is included. 



1 Geologist, Ground Water Branch, U. S. Geological Survey, Raleigh, N. C. 



Introduction 

This paper is a result of studies undertaken to 
establish paleontologic control for the subsurface 
separation of the Upper Cretaceous Black Creek 
and Peedee formations in the North Carolina 
Coastal Plain. Ground-water investigations had 
shown the two formations to be major aquifers 
and distinct hydrologic units, but their lithologic 
similarity precludes their visual separation in 
well cuttings. The Ostracoda were chosen as the 
paleontologic control because of their apparent 
tolerance to variable environmental changes, re- 
sulting in a wide distribution of species in vari- 
able lithofacies over relatively wide geographic 
areas. All species described in this paper are from 
outcrops of Cretaceous sediments. A checklist (fig. 
2) notes species that have been recognized in well 



cuttings. Information relative to the occurrence 
of the species in the subsurface is taken from a re- 
port by the writer entitled, "Well logs from the 
North Carolina Coastal Plain," which is to be 
published by the Division of Mineral Resources 
of the North Carolina Department of Conserva- 
tion and Development after the publication of 
this report. 

This investigation was made by the United 
States Geological Survey in financial cooperation 
with the North Carolina Division of Mineral Re- 
sources. The work was done under the general 
supervision of A. N. Sayre, Chief, Ground Water 
Branch, U. S. Geological Survey, and J. L. 
Stuckey, State Geologist of North Carolina, and 
under the immediate supervision of H. E. Le- 
Grand, district geologist of the Ground Water 
Branch for North Carolina. 



Acknowledgments 

Appreciation is expressed to Mr. H. E. Le- 
Grand who has given freely of his time and of his 
extensive knowledge of the Cretaceous deposits of 
the Atlantic Coastal Plain, and who has encour- 
aged the writer to undertake this problem. Dr. 
Landis Bennett, Visual Aids Department, North 
Carolina State College, acted as technical advisor 
on photography. Professor F. M. Swain, Univer- 
sity of Minnesota, Professor Walter Wheeler, Uni- 
versity of North Carolina, and Mr. I. G. Sohn, 
U. S. Geological Survey, offered many helpful sug- 
gestions during the preparation of the manuscript. 



Previous Work 

The only previous work dealing with Mesozoic 
Ostracoda in North Carolina is that of Swain 
(1952), who described and illustrated 47 species 
from two deep oil tests in the State. Other sources 
containing information concerning Mesozoic Os- 
tracoda from the Atlantic Coastal Plain are papers 
by Berry (1925), Coryell and others (1935), Jen- 
nings (1936), Schmidt (1948), and Swain (1948). 
Mesozoic Ostracoda from Upper Cretaceous equiv- 
alents of the Gulf Coastal Plain have been the 
subject of a more intensive study. 



Stratigraphy 

As presently recognized, the outcropping Upper 
Cretaceous formations of the North Carolina 
Coastal Plain are, in ascending order, the Tusca- 
loosa, Black Creek, and Peedee formations. Ac- 
cording to present information, the Tuscaloosa 
formation contains no marine fossils in outcrop, 
but beds mapped as the Tuscaloosa formation in 
the subsurface contain a fauna of Eagle Ford and 
Woodbine age (Spangler, p. 116). The Tuscaloosa 
formation is unconformably overlain by the Black 
Creek formation. The Black Creek formation con- 
sists of a lower, unnamed member and an upper 
member, the Snow Hill marl member. On the basis 
of lithology and stratigraphic position, the lower 
member of the Black Creek formation at the sur- 
face is considered to be the shoreward extension 
of beds equivalent to those of Austin or Taylor 



age in the subsurface. The upper member, the 
Snow Hill marl member, is of Taylor age, the 
correlation being based on the presence of Exogy- 
ra yonder osa in outcropping sections (Stephen- 
son, 1923, p. 48). The Peedee formation overlies 
the Black Creek formation conformably. In North 
Carolina the Peedee formation includes the Ex- 
ogyra costata zone and the Exogyra cancellata 
subzone of Stephenson and is correlated with the 
Navarro formation and its equivalents of the Gulf 
Coast (Stephenson, 1923, p. 51). 

The fauna described in this paper was obtained 
from exposures of the Snow Hill marl member of 
the Black Creek formation and from the Peedee 
formation. Zonation of the two units by means of 
the ostracodes seems practical but was not under- 
taken at this time because the subsurface hydro- 
logic boundaries, which the writer was seeking to 
establish, are formational rather than intrafor- 
mational in nature. 



Lithologic Character of Snow Hill 

Marl Member of Black Creek 
Formation and Peedee Formation 

In surface exposures the Snow Hill marl mem- 
ber consists of black to gray laminated sandy clay 
and interbedded sand, with varying amounts of 
fine-grained glauconite, marcasite aggregates, 
and black lignitized wood fragments. Most of the 
macrofossils consist of poorly preserved casts and 
molds, no calcareous shell material remaining. Lo- 
cally, however, calcareous shell material has been 
preserved in a sandy clay matrix, and forms a 
drab-gray marl which reflects varying degrees of 
induration. The Peedee formation exhibits a vari- 
able lithology in outcrop. In the southern part of 
the State it most nearly resembles the Snow Hill 
marl member lithologically, and it is very difficult 
to separate the two even where they occur in the 
same section. Along the strike to the northeast, 
in Lenoir, Pitt, and Greene Counties, the Peedee 
is composed of gray to green medium- to coarse- 
grained glauconitic sand in a clay matrix contain- 
ing varying amounts of calcareous shell material. 
Indurated beds composed mainly of the valves of 
Exogyra costata Say and Exogyra cancellata Ste- 
phenson form prominent ledges along many of the 
streams. 



Collecting Localities 

Localities from which ostracodes were obtained 
are shown on the accompanying map, figure 1. 
The locality designated as the type locality for the 
Snow Hill marl member was described by Kerr, 
in 1875, as being at Snow Hill along Contentnea 
Creek. This was the locality from which Conrad, 
in 1871, collected and described numerous fossils. 
However, there are no good exposures of fossilif- 
erous material along the stream at Snow Hill. The 
writer has walked out a considerable section of 
the stream during periods of extremely low flow, 
and the first section that contains any identifiable 
fossils is 1.7 miles downstream from the town of 
Snow Hill. This section, consisting of prominent 
bluffs along both sides of the creek, contains a 
drab-gray to black shell marl as much as eight 
feet thick which is exposed intermittently along 
both sides of the stream for several miles. This 
locality generally conforms with Kerr's descrip- 
tion of the marl beds along Contentnea Creek at 
Snow Hill. Therefore, for the purpose of this 
paper, and as a matter of record, locality J, 1.7 
miles downstream from the town of Snow Hill, is 
designated as the reference locality of the Snow 
Hill marl member of the Black Creek formation. 

(Thickness of exposed sections varies, as it is 
dependent upon seasonal water levels in bordering 
streams). 

Outcrops of the Peedee formation 

Locality A — Scuffleton, Pitt County, N. C, on 
the farm of E. H. Rogers, 0.7 mile north of Scuf- 
fleton on N. C. Route 102, about 16 feet of the 
Peedee formation occurs in a bluff on the east 
bank of Little Contentnea Creek. The following 
section of the Peedee was observed by the writer : 
Feet 

1 Indurated shell bed, composed mainly of 
the valves of Exogyra costata. Ostracoda 
and Foraminifera common. 
4 Grayish-green poorly-sorted glauconitic 
sand, partially indurated. Ostracoda and 
Foraminifera common. 
8 Drab-gray arenaceous, micaceous clay, 
sparsely glauconitic. Ostracoda and Fora- 
minifera abundant. 
1 Indurated shell bed, conglomeratic; valves 
of Exogyra costata and Exogyra cancellata 
predominate. Ostracoda and Foraminifera 
rare. 



2 Black marl; lignitized wood fragments 
prominent. Ostracoda and Foraminifera 
abundant. 

Locality B — Bladen County, N. C, Cape Fear 
River. On the west bank of the Cape Fear River 
100 feet downstream from the bridge crossing, 
which is V/-2 airline miles downstream from U. S. 
Lock No. 1 at Kings Bluff, the following section 
of the Peedee was sampled by H. E. LeGrand and 
the writer : 

Feet 

1 Gray indurated shell bed composed of the 
valves of Exogyra costata. Ostracoda and 
Foraminifera very rare. 

3 Black waxy arenaceous clay containing 
numerous broken shell fragments. Ostra- 
coda and Foraminifera abundant. 

1 Gray indurated shell bed extending to river 
level. No recovery of microfossils. 

Locality C — Kinston, Lenoir County, N. C, 
Neuse River. On the north bank of the Neuse 
River 0.54 mile west of Kinston on U. S. Route 70 
and opposite the Caswell Training School, the 
following section of the Peedee was observed by 
H. E. LeGrand and the writer : 

Feet 

2 Grayish-green glauconitic sand and clay, 
partially indurated. Ostracoda and Fora- 
minifera common. 

5 Drab-gray to black arenaceous clay con- 
taining abundant shells and shell frag- 
ments. Ostracoda and Foraminifera abun- 
dant. 

2 Gray indurated shell bed. Ostracoda and 
Foraminifera common. 

Locality D — Wilmington, New Hanover County, 
N. C, Northeast Cape Fear River. At Hilton Park 
in Wilmington at a point on the east bank of the 
river at the Wilmington Waterworks plant, 
the following section of the Peedee was observed 
by H. E. LeGrand and the writer: 

Feet 
12 Gray glauconitic, micaceous clays; mas- 
sive in the upper third, becoming more 
arenaceous in the middle and lower thirds. 
Brcken shell fragments prominent, par- 
tially indurated near the base which is cov- 
ered at high tide. Ostracoda and Foramin- 
ifera common to rare. 




I Cumberland ' Sampson 
A Hoke v 

( \ 

^ Scotland f \ 1 \ / 



A 


Peedee localities 


A 


Block Creek localities 




Scale 




10 20 Miles 



Figure 1. — Upper Cretaceous localities from which Ostracoda are listed. 



5a 



Locality E — Sarecta, Duplin County, N. C. In 
the north side of a roadcut, one-fourth mile west 
of Sarecta and 400 yards east of the bridge across 
the Northeast Cape Fear River, the following 
section of the Peedee was observed by H. E. Le- 
Grand and the writer : 

Feet 

7 Drab-black to gray arenaceous clays con- 
taining many fine shell fragments and 
sharks teeth. Ostracoda and Foraminifera 
abundant. 

Locality F — Carvers, Bladen County, N. C, 
Cape Fear River. On the Walter Johnson farm, 
west bank of the Cape Fear River between mile- 
posts 48 and 49, the following section of the Pee- 
dee was observed by H. E. LeGrand and the writ- 
er in a steep ravine in front of the farm house, an 
estimated 15 feet above normal river level : 
Feet 
11 • Drab-black to gray massive clays, more 
arenaceous in the upper third. Ostracoda 
and Foraminifera abundant. 
2 Interbedded sands and clays, partially in- 
durated. Exogyra costata common, broken 
shell fragments abundant. Ostracoda and 
Foraminifera common. 

Outcrops of the Snow Hill marl member 
of the Black Creek formation 

Locality G — Greenville, Pitt County, N. C, Tar 
River, U.S.G.S. locality nos. 4144 and 5347. At 
Blue Banks Landing on the south bank of the Tar 
River seven miles upstream from Greenville, the 
following section of the Black Creek was observed 
in a steep bluff by H. E. LeGrand and the writer: 
Feet 
16 Grayish-green to black micaceous, arena- 
ceous, laminated clays. Lignitized wood 
and plant remains prominent. The lower 
two feet of the section approaches a marl, 
containing Exogyra ponderosa and many 
large shells. Ostracoda and Foraminifera 
in the upper third of the section are gen- 
erally recrystallized with small globules of 
pure calcite affixed to the shells. Ostracoda 
in the lower two-thirds of the section are 
abundant. Foraminifera are less common. 

Locality H — Lenoir County, N. C, Neuse River, 
U.S.G.S. locality nos. 4160 and 5353. At Auger 
Hole Landing, milepost 73, 0.5 mile downstream 



from the Wayne County line, on the north bank 
of the Neuse River the following section of the 
Black Creek was observed by H. E. LeGrand and 
the writer : 
Feet 

7 Dark-gray to black interbedded, lenticular 
sands and clays, slightly indurated at the 
base. Macrofossils consist 'of poorly pre- 
served casts and molds. No microfossils 
were recovered from the exposed section. 
Ostracoda listed from this locality were 
obtained from a 15 foot auger hole sample. 
The auger hole was located 100 feet from 
the river bank. 

Locality I — Strabane, Lenoir County, N. C, 
Neuse River. At One Dram Landing, 0.2 mile 
downstream from the mouth of Bear Creek, on 
the north bank of the Neuse River, one-half mile 
upstream from the bridge, which is 1.7 miles 
north of Strabane, N. C, the following section of 
the Black Creek was observed by H. E. LeGrand 
and the writer : 
Feet 

3 Black clay-marl with thin interbedded 
sandy layers, finely glauconitic. No micro- 
fossils. 
2 Indurated shell bed projecting out into the 
river about 15 feet. No microfossils. The 
Ostracoda listed from this locality were 
obtained from a 9-foot auger hole sample. 
The auger hole was located 25 feet from 
the river bank. 

Locality J — Snow Hill, Greene County, N. C, 
Contentnea Creek. On the farm of L. C. Daniels, 
1.7 miles downstream from Snow Hill, N. C, the 
following section of the Black Creek was observed 
by the writer on the east bank of Contentnea 
Creek : 
Feet 
1.5 Rusty, iron-stained coarse sand, partially 
indurated and containing fossils as casts 
and molds. No microfossils. 

8 Gray to black clay-marl containing abun- 
dant but fragile macrofossils. Exogyra 
ponderosa is in the lower five feet of this 
interval. Ostracoda and Foraminifera com- 
mon in the lower three feet of this interval. 

Locality K — Mullins, Marion County, S. C, Pee 
Dee River tributary, U.S.G.S. locality no. 5372. 
Three miles south-southeast of Mullins at an old 



mill site known as Hodges Mill on the west bank 
of an unnamed tributary of the Pee Dee River the 
following section of the Black Creek was observed 
by H. E. LeGrand and the writer : 
Feet 

3 Black-thinly laminated interbedded sand 
and clay. No microfossils. 

4 Black clay-marl containing numerous 
broken shell fragments. Ostracoda and 
Foraminifera rare. 

Systematic Descriptions 



Order 


Ostracoda 


Latreille, 1802 


Suborder 


Platycopa 


Sars, 1866 


Family 


Cytherellidae 


Sars, 1866 


Genus 


Cytherella 


Jones, 1849 



Cytherella bullata Alexander 
Plate 1, Figures 6, 7 

Cytherella obesa Alexander, 1929, Texas Univ. 

Bull. 2907, p. 51, pi. 1, figs. 3, 6. 

(Non. Cytherella obesa Jones, Kirkby, and 
Brady, 1884) 
Cytherella austinensis Alexander, 1929, Texas 

Univ. Bull. 2907, p. 51, pi. 2, figs. 4, 6. 
Cytherella bullata Alexander, 1931, Jour. Paleon- 
tology, vol. 6, p. 101. Alexander, 1932, Amer. 

Mid. Naturalist, vol. 13, no. 5, p. 305, pi. 28, 

figs. 3, 4. 
Cytherella cf. C. obesa Alexander. Swain, 1952, 

Ostracoda from wells in North Carolina, Pt. 2, 

Mesozoic Ostracoda: U. S. Geol. Survey Prof. 

Paper 234-B, p. 68, pi. 8, fig. 2. 

Shell subovate in lateral view; greatest height 
median; dorsal margin convex; ventral margin 
weakly convex ; anterior margin broadly rounded, 
slightly compressed ; posterior margin less broad- 
ly rounded. Right valve larger and overlapping 
around entire margin, least overlap at posterior 
ventral margin. Surface of right valve smooth. 
Anterior margin of left valve bears a weak rim 
more pronounced medially and ventrally, surface 
otherwise smooth. 

Dimensions: Fig. 7: length 0.68 mm; height 
0.39 mm; biconvexity 0.21 mm. 

Occurrence: Black Creek only, localities G and 
J. U.S.N.M. 128887, 128888. 



Cytherella ovata (Roemer) 
Plate 1, Figure 12 

Cytherina ovata Roemer, 1840, Verstein nord- 
deutsch. Kreidegeb, p. 104, pi. 16, fig. 21. 

Cytherella ovata Jones, 1849, Monogr. Cret. Ento- 

mostraca England, Palaeontographical Soc, 

London, p. 28, pi. 7, figs. 24a-i. 

Jones and Hinde, 1890, Suppl. Monogr. Cret. 

Entomostraca England and Ireland: Palaeon- 
tographical Soc, London, p. 44, pi. 3, figs. 
48-54. pi. 4, fig. 39. 

Cytherella obovata Jones and Hinde, 1890, Suppl. 
Monogr. Cret. Entomostraca England and Ire- 
land: Palaeontographical Soc, London, p. 46, 
pi. 3, figs. 46, 47. 

Cytherella navarroensis Alexander, 1929, Texas 
Univ. Bull. 2907, p. 53, pi. 2, figs. 1, 2. 
Swain, 1952, Ostracoda from wells in North 
Carolina, pt. 2, Mesozoic Ostracoda, U. S. 
Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 234-B, p. 68, pi. 8, 
fig. 1, 
Cytherella moremani Alexander, 1929, Texas 
Univ. Bull. 2907, p. 53, pi. 1, figs. 4, 5. 
Jennings, 1936, Bull. Am. Paleontology, vol. 23, 
no. 78, p. 41, pi. 6, fig. 1. 

Cytherella ovata (Roemer) Alexander, 1932, 

Amer. Mid. Naturalist, vol. 13, no. 5, p. 307, 

pi. 28, figs. 1, 2. 

(Non. C. ovata Alexander, 1929, Texas Univ. 
Bull. 2907, p. 47, pi. 1, figs. 1, 2) 

Dimensions: Fig. 12: length 0.78 mm; height 
0.49 mm; biconvexity 0.32 mm. 

Occurrence : Peedee only, localities A, D ( ?) , 
and F. U.S.N.M. 128889. 

Remarks: Swain (1952, p. 68) has recently de- 
scribed the species. 

Cytherella tuberculifera Alexander 
Plate 1, Figures 3-5 

Cytherella tuberculifera Alexander, 1929, Texas 
Univ. Bull. 2907, p. 52, pi. 2, fig. 3. 

Shell subovate-elongate in lateral view; great- 
est height median ; dorsal margin convex, strong- 
est posteriorly; ventral margin very weakly con- 
vex; anterior margin strongly rounded, greatest 
ventrally ; posterior margin of left valve smoothly 



North Carolina Stale Library 
Rafei^fo 



rounded, that of right valve strongly rounded and 
drawn out into median bulbous extension, trun- 
cated. Right valve larger and overlapping left 
valve, greatest anteriorly and dorsally. Surface 
smooth. Internal features not observed. 

Dimensions : Fig. 3 : length 0.87 mm ; height 
0.44 mm; biconvexity 0.33 mm. 

Occurrence: Peedee only, localities A and E. 
U.S.N.M. 128890, 128891, 128892. 

Remarks : The bulbous posterior extension of 
the right valve serves to readily distinguish this 
species. 

Cytherella herricki Brown, n. sp. 
Plate 1, Figures 8-11 

Shell subovate-elongate in lateral view; great- 
est height slightly anterad of median ; dorsal mar- 
gin moderately convex; ventral margin straight; 
anterior margin broadly and evenly rounded ; pos- 
terior margin rounded. Right valve larger than 
left, overlapping around entire periphery, great- 
est anterad dorsally. 

Surface finely punctate, coarser medially, with 
a faint "crescent-shaped" median sulcus extend- 
ing from just inside dorsal margin to center of 
valve; anterior margin of left valve bears a fine 
sharp rim below, more pronounced medially.- In- 
terior of valves deep posteriorly and showing a 
smooth ridge marking position of median sulcus, 
otherwise smooth. 

Dimensions : Holotype : length 0.74 mm ; height 
0.42 mm; biconvexity 0.25 mm. 

Occurrence : Peedee only, localities A, C, and F. 
U.S.N.M. 128893, 128894, 128895, 128896. 

Remarks: The punctate surface and median 
sulcus serves to readily distinguish this species. 
Specimens which bear a slightly extended and 
inflated posterior area in the right valve and a 
very faint anterior swelling ventrally in the left 
valve probably represent female dimorphs. Named 
for Dr. Stephen Herrick, U. S. Geological Survey. 

Cytherella sp. 
Plate 1, Figures 1, 2 

Ovate valves of Cytherella occur frequently in 
many of the Peedee outcrops. They are generally 
short in relation to width and contain a faint ill- 
defined depression dorso-medially. No attempt 
was made to further identify these specimens as 
no complete carapaces showing overlap relation- 
ships were present in the material examined. 



Dimensions : Fig. 1 : length 0.85 mm ; height 
0.53 mm; convexity 0.13 mm. 

Occurrence: Peedee only, localities A, B, C, D, 
and E. U.S.N.M. 128897, 128898. 

Remarks : Common in subsurface Peedee 
(upper part). 

Genus Cytherelloidea Alexander, 1929 

Cytherelloidea swaini Brown, n. sp. 

Plate 1, Figures 16-19 

Shell short, quadrate in side view ; dorsal mar- 
gin slightly convex, sinuous ; ventral margin 
straight ; anterior margin broadly rounded ; pos- 
terior margin more narrowly rounded. Right 
valve larger and overlapping left, greatest at an- 
terior dorsal angle. 

Anterior margin with broad sloping rim and 
subjacent depression posterad; sharp ventral rim, 
connected with anterior rim at anterior ventral 
angle, forms ventral margin passing posterad into 
large high tubercle located at posterior ventral 
angle; a second large high tubercle lies at pos- 
terior dorsal angle ; a bulbous dorsal ridge rises 
postjacent to and slightly forward of the an- 
terior dorsal angle, curves gently towards the an- 
terior dorsal angle, and forms the dorsal margin 
passing posterad into the dorsal tubercle. There 
is a deep subcentral depression. Touching the 
ventral margin, medially, is a thick bulbous ridge, 
anterad rising upward and passing into the ante- 
rior third of the valve, posterad rising upward 
and passing into posterior third of valve just 
short of the ventral tubercle. A short rim along 
the posterior margin connects dorsal and ventral 
tubercles. Interior of valves, rugose, deep pos- 
teriorly. 

Dimensions : Holotype : length 0.58 mm ; height 
0.36 mm; biconvexity 0.22 mm. 

Occurrence: Peedee only, localities A, B, C, D, 
E, and F. U.S.N.M. 128899, 128900, 128901. 

Remarks : This species which can be distin- 
guished by the large posterior tubercles and slop- 
ing anterior rim is an excellent guide fossil for 
the Peedee formation. Named for Professor Fred- 
erick M. Swain, University of Minnesota. 

Cytherelloidea (?) cuneiforma Brown, n. sp. 
Plate 1, Figures 13-15 

Carapace in lateral view, oblong-subovate ; dor- 
sal margin straight, slightly arched in posterior 
third ; ventral margin straight to weakly concave 



medially; anterior margin broadly and .evenly 
rounded, weakly rimmed below ; posterior margin 
less broadly rounded ; right valve larger than left 
around entire periphery, more pronounced dor- 
sally and ventrally; widest post-medially, highest 
in posterior fourth. 

Medially, the valves show a system of clearly 
denned, closely spaced, wedge-shaped furrows out- 
lined by fine subdued ridges which show a sub- 
parallel to anastomosing arrangement; anterior 
and posterior thirds smooth, surface glassy. 

Dimensions : Holotype : length 0.63 mm ; height 
0.35 mm; biconvexity 0.18 mm. 

Occurrence : Peedee only, localities A, C, and F. 
U.S.N.M. 128902, 128903, 128904. 

Remarks: The outline, valve overlap, faint an- 
terior rim and internal features of this species 
are suggestive of the genera Cytherella Jones and 
Cytherelloidea Alexander. Because of the median 
surface sculpture which resembles arachaic 
wedge-shaped writing the specimens are believed 
to be closer to Cytherelloidea Alexander and are 
provisionally placed in that genus. 

Cytherelloidea sohni Brown, n. sp. 

Plate 2, Figures 1-3 

Shell in side view, subquadrate ; dorsal margin 
sinuate, convex medially ; ventral margin straight, 
slightly concave medially ; anterior margin broad- 
ly rounded ; posterior margin rounded. 

Anterior, ventral, and posterior margins sharp- 
ly rimmed by a continuous connecting ridge rising 
at anterior dorsal angle. At posterior dorsal angle 
the ridge swings gently inward subparallel to the 
dorsal margin, terminating below the anterior 
dorsal angle and outlining, dorsally, a shallow sub- 
central pit. Between the pit and ventral margin 
are two short ridges, slightly concave upward, and 
merging at their ends into the posterior and an- 
terior-third of the valves. 

Dimensions : Holotype : length 0.57 mm ; height 
0.29 mm; biconvexity 0.19 mm. 

Occurrence : Peedee only, localities A, C, and E. 
U.S.N.M. 128905, 128906, 128907. 

Remarks : This species which has not been rec- 
ognized in well cuttings south of the Neuse River 
seems to be an excellent subsurface guide in the 
northeastern part of the State. Named for I. Greg- 
ory Sohn, U. S. Geological Survey. 

Cytherelloidea greenensis Brown, n. sp. 

Plate 1, Figures 22, 23, 26, 29 
Carapace in lateral view, oblong-ovate; dorsal 



margin straight to weakly convex; ventral mar- 
gin straight; anterior margin broadly and evenly 
rounded ; posterior margin less broadly rounded. 

Anterior margin with well-defined rim ; ventral 
margin less strongly rimmed ; above posterior mar- 
gin and parallel to it are prominent well-defined 
dorsal and ventral tubercles connected by a short 
sharp ridge ; a sharp ridge extends from the ven- 
tral tubercle, anteriorly, parallel to and above the 
ventral margin, terminating sharply in flat ante- 
rior third of the carapace; a short ridge, subja- 
cent to the dorsal margin, extends from the dorsal 
tubercle terminating behind and above a shallow 
subcentral pit ; subcentral pit outlined above by a 
short sharp ridge parallel to the dorsal margin. 

Dimensions : Holotype : length 0.57 mm ; height 
0.31 mm; biconvexity 0.18 mm. 

Occurrence : Peedee only, localities A, C, and E. 
U.S.N.M. 128908, 128909, 128910. 

Remarks : The shape, wide-spacing of the pos- 
terior tubercles and arrangement of the ridges 
distinguishes this species from C. sivaini and C. 
andrewsi, n. sp.'s. 

Cytherelloidea andrewsi Brown, n. sp. 

Plate 1, Figures 24, 27, 28 

Carapace small, subovate in lateral view; dor- 
sal margin gently arched ; ventral margin straight, 
slightly concave medially ; anterior margin broad- 
ly and evenly rounded ; posterior margin more 
narrowly rounded than anterior. Right valve 
larger than left, overlap greatest along dorsum. 

Marginal rim commencing at antero-dorsal 
junction follows anterior, ventral and posterior 
margins, posterad of dorsum, medially, the ridge 
curves inward and around a deep subcentral pit, 
becomes slightly sinuous beneath the subcentral 
pit, and terminates just short of the marginal rim 
at the postero-dorsal junction; a second promi- 
nent ridge, separated from the subcentral pit by 
a prominent elongate depression, rises in anterior 
third, parallels the ventral margin and curves up- 
ward posteriorly to terminate just short of the 
posterior rim medially. The subcentral pit con- 
tains a weak ridge giving the pit the appearance 
of being subequally divided. 

Dimensions : Holotype : length 0.52 mm ; height 
0.31 mm ; biconvexity 0.20 mm. 

Occurrence: Peedee only, localities A, C, and E. 
U.S.N.M. 128911, 128912, 128913. 

Remarks : This species is named for Dr. T. G. 



9 



Andrews former head of the geology department, 
University of Alabama. 

Cytherelloidea inflata Brown, n. sp. 
Plate 1, Figures 20, 21, 25 

Carapace small, ovate in lateral view; inflated 
anteriorly, more so posteriorly; dorsal margin 
weakly arched ; ventral margin straight ; anterior 
margin broadly and evenly rounded ; posterior 
margin gently rounded dorsally, angulate ven- 
trally. 

Anterior and ventral margins with well devel- 
oped rims. Posterior fourth, with a steep slope to 
the posterior margin, is surmounted by ill-defined, 
weakly connected, dorsal and ventral tubercles ; a 
strong ridge above and parallel to the ventral 
margin extends from the ventral tubercle ante- 
riorly, and terminates submedially in the anterior 
third of the carapace. A short ridge extends me- 
dially from the dorsal tubercle and terminates 
just short of a prominent subcentral pit. A second 
bulbous ridge extends from the dorsal tubercle, 
extends parallel to and above the dorsal margin, 
swings inward at the antero-dorsal junction and 
terminates in inflated anterior third. A short ill- 
defined ridge, extending from the inflated anterior 
third, outlines the subcentral pit below. 

Dimensions : Holotype : length 0.50 mm ; height 
0.32 mm; biconvexity 0.21 mm. 

Occurrence: Peedee only, localities A, C, and E. 
U.S.N.M. 128914, 128915, 128916. 

Remarks: This species bears superficial resem- 
blance to C. stvaini Brown but can be separated 
on the basis of its longer and continuous ventral 
ridge, posterior slope and less well-defined tu- 
bercles. 

Suborder Podocopa Sars, 1866 
Family Bairdiidae Sars, 1888 
Genus Bairdia McCoy, 1844 

Bairdia pittensis Brown, n. sp. 
Plate 3, Figures 1-3 

Carapace small, subquadrate in lateral view; 
highest medially ; hinge margin straight medially, 
broadly obtuse at cardinal angles ; ventral margin 
straight to sinuous; anterior margin obtusely 
rounded and extended; posterior margin acumi- 
nate and extended below. Left valve larger than 
right, overlapping, greatest overlap along pos- 
tero-dorsal slope. Surface of valves strongly and 
finely pitted. 



The internal features, showing the lack of hinge 
denticulations on the dorsal slopes place this spe- 
cies in the genus Bairdia McCoy. The muscle scar 
consists of a long lateral scar below which are 
four parallel offset scars two on each side of a 
circular area and below which is a sixth large 
scar parallel to the topmost lateral scar. Interior 
of the valves are coarsely punctate. Inner margin 
and line of concrescence widely separated at an- 
terior and posterior extremities. 

Dimensions : Holotype : length 0.64 mm ; height 
0.31 mm ; biconvexity 0.24 mm. The two valves of 
the holotype were separated after being measured. 

Occurrence: Peedee only, locality A. U.S.N.M. 
128917. 

Remarks : This species most closely resembles 
Bairdia fortificata Brady from Tertiary and Re- 
cent sediments. It can be separated from that spe- 
cies by its more discretely punctate surface, nar- 
rower posterior margin and smaller size. Two 
complete carapaces and a left valve were the only 
specimens obtained at the outcrop. However, be- 
cause of its unique appearance and its occurrence 
in several wells it has been described and figured. 

Genus Bairdoppilata Coryell, Sample, and 

Jennings, 1935 

Bairdoppilata pondera Jennings 

Plate 3, Figures 4, 7, 8 

Bairdoppilata pondera Jennings, 1936, Bull. Am. 

Paleontology, vol. 23, no. 78, p. 45, pi. 6, fig. 9. 

Schmidt, 1948, Jour. Paleontology, vol. 22, p. 
408, pi. 61, figs. 21, 22. 

Swain, 1952, U. S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 
234-B, p. 71, pi. 8, figs. 8-12. 

Dimensions: Fig. 7: length 1.18 mm; height 
0.75 mm; biconvexity 0.52 mm. 

Occurrence: Peedee only, localities A, E, and F. 
U.S.N.M. 128918, 128919, 128920. 

Remarks: Swain (1952, p. 72) has recently de- 
scribed the species and listed its occurrence in 
North Carolina well samples as Black Creek and 
lower. During the present study of outcrop and 
well samples the species has not been recognized 
in sediments older than the Peedee formation. 

Bairdoppilata postextensa (Swain) 
Plate 3, Figures 5, 6, 9 

Bairdia postextensa Swain, 1948, Maryland Dept. 
Geology, Mines and Water Res., Bull. 2, p. 193, 
pi. 12, fig. 10. 
Carapace subtriangular in side view; greatest 



10 



height slightly anterad of median ; dorsal margin 
strongly arched ; ventral margin convex ; anterior 
margin evenly rounded, slightly extended ; pos- 
terior margin angulate, obtuse. 

Left valve larger and overlaps right valve along 
all margins, overlap most pronounced mid ven- 
trally. Surface smooth and glassy. Fine denticu- 
lations on the selvage along anterior and posterior 
dorsal slopes. Muscle scars not observed. 

Dimensions: Fig. 6: length 1.10 mm; height 
0.62 mm; biconvexity 0.43 mm. 

Occurrence: Peedee only in outcrop. Swain 
(1948, p. 193) lists the species from an Eocene 
interval in the Hammond well. The species has 
been recognized in water wells from intervals 
designated as middle and lower Eocene during the 
present study. Localities A and C. U.S.N.M. 
128921, 128922, 128923. 

Remarks : This species which occurs with Bair- 
doppilata pondera Jennings can be most easily 
distinguished from that species by the larger ratio 
of length to height and the more pronounced ex- 
tension of the posterior third of the carapace of 
B. postextensa. Swain (1948, p. 189) lists the 
species as occurring in the Eocene interval in the 
Hammond well at a depth of 1320-1330 feet. 

Family Cytheridae Baird, 1850 

The family Cytheridae has been subjected to 
recent revision by Sylvester-Bradley (1948, p. 
794). S-Bradley erected the family Trachyleber- 
idae to include the genera Trachyleberis Brady 
and Platycythereis Triebel — genera that are dis- 
cussed in this paper. Swain (1951, p. 17, 18) and 
Puri (1953, p. 172, 173) have discussed the re- 
vision and questioned the validity of the Trachy- 
leberidae as defined by S-Bradley (1948, p. 793). 
The present writer feels that a more adequate 
generic definition of Trachyleberis Brady should 
preclude its being placed in a new family, and in 
this paper Trachyleberis Brady is left in the 
Cytheridae. 

Genus Brachycythere Alexander, 1933 

Brachycythere sphenoides (Reuss) 

Plate 4, Figure 16 

Cythere sphenoides Reuss, 1854, Denschr. K. 
Akad. Wissen. Wien, vol. 7, p. 141, pi. 26, fig. 2. 
Alexander, 1929, Texas Univ. Bull. 2907, p. 81, 
pi. 7, figs. 9, 14. 



Cytheropteron sphenoides (Reuss), Jones and 
Hinde, 1889, Suppl. Monogr. Cret. Entom. Eng- 
land, Ireland, Palaeontographical Soc. London, 
p. 33, pi. 1, figs. 18-20. 

Cytheropteron sp. B., Israelsky, 1929, Arkansas 
Geol. Survey, Bull. 2, p. 8, pi. 1A, figs. 2a-c. 

Brachycythere sphenoides (Reuss), Alexander, 
1933, Jour. Paleontology, vol. 7, p. 205, pi. 25, 
figs. 3a-c, 14a, b ; pi. 26, figs. 7a, b ; pi. 27, fig. 19. 

Brachycythere sphenoides (Reuss) , Swain, 1952, 
U. S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 234-B, p. 80, 
pi. 8, figs. 42, 43. 
Dimensions : Fig. 16 : length 0.90 mm ; height 

0.54 mm. 

Occurrence: Black Creek only, localities G, H, 
I, J, and K. U.S.N.M. 128924. 

Remarks : The external features of this species 
have recently been described by Swain (1952, p. 
80). However, specimens from outcrop sections 
differ slightly but consistently in having one or 
more fine ridges on the ventral surface. In addi- 
tion, well preserved specimens have fine spines 
along the antero-ventral and postero-ventral mar- 
gins. 

Brachycythere rhomhoidalis (Berry) 
Plate 4, Figures 5, 8, 9, 10 

Cythere rhomboidalis Berry 1925, Am. Jour. Sci., 
5th ser., vol. 9, p. 481, figs. 1, 2. 
Alexander, 1929, Texas Univ. Bull. 2907, p. 86, 
pi. 7, figs. 1, 2. 

Brachycythere rhomboidalis (Berry) Alexander, 

1933, Jour. Paleontology, vol. 7, no. 2, p. 206. 
Brachycythere jerseyensis Jennings, 1936, Bull. 

Am. Paleontology, vol. 23, no. 78, p. 48, pi. 6, 

figs. 14a-b. 
Brachycythere rhomboidalis (Berry) Schmidt, 

1948, Jour. Paleontology, vol. 22, p. 414, pi. 62, 

figs. 8-10. 

Dimensions : Fig. 8 : length 0.95 mm ; height 
0.47 mm; biconvexity 0.52 mm. 

Occurrence: Peedee only, localities A, B, C, D, 
E, and F. U.S.N.M. 128925, 128926, 128927, 
128928. 

Remarks : In outline and in the possession of a 
deep postjacent furrow at the anterior cardinal 
angle these specimens resemble Brachycythere 
sphenoides (Reuss). The present specimens show 
great variation in the strength of the ventro- 



11 



lateral punctate ridge. In both male and female 
dimorphs the ridge may be sharply truncate pos- 
teriorly or may merge gently into the posterior 
third of the valve. Striations on the ventral sur- 
face vary from strong to weak, generally being 
more pronounced on the shorter tumid females. 
Schmidt (1948, p. 414) has recently described 
the species. 

Br achy cy there nausiformis Swain 
Plate 4, Figures 3, 4 

Br achy cy there nausiformis Swain, 1952, U. S. 
Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 234-B, p. 80, pi. 8, 
figs. 44-47. 

The external features of this species were ade- 
quately described by Swain (1952, p. 80). 

Hinge of right valve consists of a high pointed 
tooth and postjacent socket; attached is a finely 
crenulate bar, thicker anterad, extending to a 
weakly notched, elongate posterior tooth project- 
ing high on the dorsal margin. Hinge of left valve 
consists of an anterior socket and postjacent high 
pointed tooth ; attached is a finely crenulate bar. 
thicker anterad, extending to a weakly crenulate 
socket. Anterior tooth and crenulate bar are sep- 
arated from the dorsal margin by a depressed 
furrow, widest anterad and merging into crenu- 
late socket posterad. Line of concrescence and 
inner margin coincide. Anterior marginal pore 
canals, about 34 in number, finely bifurcated. Pos- 
terior marginal pore canals, 12 in number, 
straight and slightly coarser than anterior ca- 
nals. Deep muscle pit located anterior median- 
third of valve. 

Dimensions: Fig. 3: length 1.02 mm; height 
0.52 mm; convexity 0.24 mm. 

Occurrence: Black Creek only. Swain lists the 
occurrence in beds of Black Creek ( ?) and Eutaw 
(?) age. Localities G, H, I, J, and K. U.S.N.M. 
128929, 128930. 

Brachycythere plena Alexander, 1934 
Plate 4, Figure 7 

Brachycythere plena Alexander, 1934, Jour. 
Paleontology, vol. 8, p. 216-217, pi. 33, fig. 6. 
Murray and Hussey, 1942, Jour. Paleontology, 

vol. 16, p. 176, pi. 27, figs. 2, 5, 6, text fig. 

2, figs. 3, 7. 
Kline, 1943, Mississippi Geol. Survey, Bull. 

53, p. 67-68, pi. 8, fig. 3. 
Van den Bold, 1946, Cont. Study Ostracoda, 



p. 108, pi. 13, figs. 4-5. 
Harris and Jobe, 1951, Microfauna Midway 

Ark., p. 71, pi. 12, fig. 6. 
Munsey, 1953, Jour. Paleontology, vol. 27, 
p. 11, pi. 3, figs. 17-21. 
Dimensions: Fig. 7: length 1.06 mm; height 
0.53 mm; convexity 0.30 mm. 

Occurrence : Peedee only at surface. Peedee and 
unnamed Paleocene units in the subsurface. Lo- 
calities A and E. U.S.N.M. 128931. 

Remarks : The species has been adequately de- 
scribed by Alexander (1934, p. 216-217). The 
present specimens show the strength of the ven- 
trolateral ridge and "crescent-shaped" sulcus to 
be variable within narrow limits. In addition, our 
specimens show a tendency toward a faintly 
wrinkled or reticulate midportion adjacent to the 
ventro-lateral ridge. 

Brachycythere ledaforma (Israelsky) 
Plate 4, Figure 6 

Cytheropteron ledaforma Israelsky, 1929, Ar- 
kansas Geol. Survey Bull. 2, p. 8, pi. 1A, figs. 
5-7. 
Cythere acutocaudata Alexander, 1929, Texas 

Univ. Bull. 2907, p. 87, pi. 7, figs. 5, 6. 
Br achy cy thence ledaforma (Israelsky) Alexan- 
der, 1933, Jour. Paleontology, vol. 7, p. 206, 
pi. 25, fig. 9 ; pi. 27, fig. 20. 
Brachycythere ledaforma (Israelsky) Jennings, 
1936, Bull. Am. Paleontology, vol. 23, no. 78, 
p. 49, pi. 6, fig. 15. 
Shell in side view, subtriangular ; widest at an- 
terior cardinal angle ; dorsal margin strongly 
arched, straight along hinge; ventral margin 
straight, slightly incised at antero-ventral junc- 
tion ; anterior margin broadly and obliquely 
rounded; posterior margin, compressed, triangu- 
lar, with acute postero-ventral angle. Midportion 
strongly inflated, alate, and sharply truncate 
along venter ; right valve with a short ridge sur- 
mounting ala; left valve more tumid, without 
ridge ; a well defined furrow separates the anterior 
fourth from the tumid midportion, terminating 
dorsally, posterad of a subdued eye tubercle at 
the anterior cardinal angle. Surface variable, 
smooth to finely reticulate or punctate medially; 
venter with about six fine ridges or striations ; a 
short spine present at acute posterior angle. In- 
ternal features those of the genus. 

Dimensions: Fig. 6: length 0.64 mm; height 
0.26 mm. 



12 



Occurrence: Peedee and Black Creek, localities 
A, B, G, H, I; J, and K. U.S.N.M. 128932. 

Remarks: The present specimens are variable 
in surface sculpture medially. In general outline 
and other features they resemble B. ledaforma 
(Israelsky). The writer considers that the minor 
differences shown by the present specimens are 
not sufficient to permit differentiation from B. 
ledaforma (Israelsky). 

Brachycythere raleighensis Brown, n. sp. 

Plate 4, Figures 11-13 

Shell in side view, ovate, subtriangular ; dorsal 
margin strongly arched, nearly straight along the 
hinge line; ventral margin straight; anterior 
margin obliquely rounded, posterior margin com- 
pressed, triangular with subacute postero-ventral 
angle; left valve larger than right, most pro- 
nounced medio-dorsally. 

Anterior margin ventrally, with about five short 
spines ; posterior extremity with one or two short 
incipient spines. Inflated midportion reticulate, 
coarse puncta arranged subconcentrically. Venter 
with about six rows of pits parallel to the margin 
and separated by five ridges. Anterior furrow as 
in B. ledaforma. 

Dimensions : Holotype : length 0.62 mm ; height 
0.32 mm; biconvexity 0.33 mm. 

Occurrence : Peedee only, localities A and F. 
U.S.N.M. 128933, 128934, 128935. 

Remarks: This species bears a strong relation- 
ship to B. ledaforma (Israelsky) and seems to be 
intermediate between that species and B. fora- 
minosa Alexander from the Paleocene. 

Genus Alatacythere Murray and Hussey, 1942 

Alatacythere alata atlantica (Schmidt) 

Plate 4, Figures 1, 2 

Brachycythere alata atlantica Schmidt, 1948, 
Jour. Paleontology, vol. 22, p. 415, pi. 61, 
figs. 23-24. 
Carapace large in side view; left valve larger 
and overlaps right valve along middle dorsal mar- 
gin ; dorsal margin weakly concave, strongest an- 
terad ; ventral margin slightly sinuous ; anterior 
margin broadly rounded, ventral and median 
thirds rimmed, with double row of about nine 
plate-like spines ; posterior margin evenly round- 
ed, subcaudate, with about six long plate-like 
spines, strongest ventrally. 



Exterior smooth, translucent. Strong ala and 
projecting spines along ventral lateral edge. Well 
developed plate-like spine on posterior alial slope. 

Hingement, musculature, and radial pore canals 
typical of the genus. 

Dimensions : Fig. 1 : length 0.96 mm ; height 
0.51 mm. 

Occurrence: Peedee only, localities A and C. 
U.S.N.M. 128936, 128937. 

Remarks: The writer considers the genus Ala- 
tacythere Murray and Hussey to be valid for those 
species that exhibit the hingement of the geno- 
type, Alatacythere ivani (Howe and Law). 

Genus Trachyleberis Brady, 1898 

Trachyleberis bassleri (Ulrich) 

Plate 7, Figures 10-14 

Cythereis bassleri Ulrich, 1901, Maryland Geol. 
Survey, Eocene, p. 120, pi. 16, figs. 19-21. 
Weller, 1907, Geol. Survey New Jersey, vol. 

4, p. 843, pi. 110, figs. 1-3. 
? Cushman, 1925, Bull. Am. Assoc. Petroleum 

Geologists, vol. 9, p. 302, pi. 8, figs. 3a-c. 
Alexander, 1934, Jour. Paleontology, vol. 8, 

p. 219-220. 
Jennings, 1936, Bull. Am. Paleontology, vol. 

23, no. 78, p. 51, pi. 7, figs. la-b. 
? Van den Bold, 1946, Cont. Study Ostracoda, 

p. 94, pi. 6, fig. 20. 
Schmidt, 1948, Jour. Paleontology, vol. 22, 

p. 422, pi. 64, fig. 13. 
Swain, 1948, Maryland Geol. Survey, Bull. 

2, p. 197, pi. 13, fig. 7. 
Munsey, 1953, Jour. Paleontology, vol. 27, p. 
8, pi. 4, figs. 6, 7, 12-14. 
Cythereis bassleri lata Jennings, 1936, Bull. 
Am. Paleontology, vol. 23, no. 78, p. 52, pi. 7, 
figs. 2a-b. 
Cythereis claibornensis Gooch, 1939, Jour. Pa- 
leontology, vol. 13, p. 581, pi. 67, figs. 5, 6, 10. 
Stephenson, 1946, Jour. Paleontology, vol. 20, 
p. 336, pi. 45, fig. 4. 
Cythereis bassleri reticulolira Schmidt, 1948, 
Jour. Paleontology, vol. 22, p. 423, pi. 64, figs. 
14, 15. 
Cythereis plusculmenis Schmidt, 1948, Jour. 

Paleontology, vol. 22, p. 422, pi. 64, figs. 2-4. 

Paracythereis potomaca Schmidt, 1948, Jour. 

Paleontology, vol. 22, p. 419, pi. 64, figs. 18-19. 

Trachyleberis ? bassleri (Ulrich), Swain, 1951, 

Ostracoda from wells in North Carolina, 



pt. 1, Cenozoic Ostracoda : U. S. Geol. Survey 
Prof. Paper 234-A, p. 34-35, pi. 5, figs. 8, 
11-15. 

Dimensions: Fig. 10: length 0.82 mm; height 
0.41 mm. 

Occurrence : Peedee only, localities A and F. 
U.S.N.M. 128938, 128939, 128940, 128941, 128942. 

Remarks: Swain (1951, p. 34-35) has recently 
described the species, discussed its generic posi- 
tion, and, at the same time, placed several previ- 
ously described species in synonomy. 

Specimens from the Upper Cretaceous of North 
Carolina show little variation in surface sculpture, 
but are generally more coarsely reticulate than 
specimens from Paleocene and Eocene sediments. 
The antero-median ridges in the Cretaceous speci- 
mens are very weakly developed. 

Trachyleberis communis (Israelsky) 
Plate 3, Figures 10, 11 

Cythereis communis Israelsky, 1929, Arkansas 
Geol. Survey Bull. 2, p. 14, pi. 3a, figs. 9-13. 
Alexander, 1929, Texas Univ. Bull. 2907, p. 

101, pi. 9, fig. 18. 
Jennings, 1936, Bull. Am. Paleontology, vol. 

23, no. 78, p. 52, pi. 7, fig. 3. 
Schmidt, 1948, Jour. Paleontology, vol. 22, 
p. 419, pi. 61, figs. 11-13. 
Cythereis (Pterygocythereis) cf. C. (P) com- 
munis (Israelsky) Swain, 1948, Maryland 
Dept. Geol, Mines, and Water Res., Bull. 2, 
p. 207, pi. 14, figs. 5-7. 
Carapace subquadrate in side view; greatest 
height at anterior cardinal angle; dorsal margin 
nearly straight with slight convexity in middle 
third ; ventral margin straight, moderately con- 
verging towards dorsal margin posteriorly; an- 
terior margin broadly rounded, thick and strongly 
rimmed, with four to six short, blunt spines on 
ventral portion; posterior margin angular and 
strongly compressed, bearing a weak rim, con- 
cave do'rsally with three to four long, blunt spines 
on ventral portion. Left valve larger than right, 
greatest projection at anterior cardinal angle. 

Ventral ridge, inflated and alate, extends off the 
anterior rim, rising at the anterior ventral angle 
and extending longitudinally parallel to and 
slightly overhanging the ventral margin, sparsely 
punctate on posterior fourth and abruptly trun- 
cated by compressed posterior ; dorsal ridge rises 
at anterior cardinal angle; irregular to bulbous 



ridge extends parallel to the dorsal margin, be- 
ing less abruptly truncated by compressed pos- 
terior; median ridge, inflated in anterior third, 
rises from depressed area behind anterior rim and 
extends to compressed posterior. Hinge teeth and 
sockets smooth and noncrenulate. 

Dimensions: Fig. 10: length 0.79 mm; height 
0.40 mm; convexity 0.17 mm. 

Occurrence : This species is common at all Pee- 
dee localities and in most subsurface sections. Lo- 
calities A, B, C, D, E, and F. U.S.N.M. 128943, 
128944. 

Remarks : In many of the specimens at hand 
there is a short ridge of variable development con- 
necting the median and dorsal ridges at their pos- 
terior ends. Both adult forms and molts show this 
variable ridge development. Schmidt (1948, p. 
420) mentions this feature in connection with Mt. 
Laurel specimens. 

Trachyleberis pidgeoni (Berry) 
Plate 7, Figures 26, 27 

Cytheridea pidgeoni Berry, 1925, Am. Jour. 

Sci., 5th ser., no. 9, p. 485, figs. 7, 8. 
Cythereis pidgeoni (Berry) Schmidt, 1948, 
Jour. Paleontology, vol. 22, p. 421, pi. 62, 
figs. 2-6. 

(Not) Swain, 1951, U. S. Geol. Survey Prof. 
Paper 234-A, p. 36, pi. 6, fig. 1. 
Dimensions: Fig. 26: male; length 0.70 mm; 
height 0.29 mm. 

Fig. 27 : female ; length 0.61 mm ; 
height 0.30 mm. 

Occurrence: Peedee only, localities A, B, C, D, 
E, and F. U.S.N.M. 128945, 128946. 

Remarks: Schmidt (1948, p. 421) has recently 
described the species. Comparison of the present 
specimens was made with Cythereis huntensis 
Alexander. The two species are probably identical 
and examination of a larger suite of specimens 
than was available to the writer would probably 
show C. huntensis Alexander and T. pidgeoni 

(Berry) to be dimorphic synonyms. 

I 

Trachyleberis gapensis (Alexander) 
Plate 7, Figures 15-19 

Cythere gapensis Alexander, 1929, Texas Univ. 

Bull. 2907, p. 84, pi. 6, figs. 16, 17. 
The external features of this species have been 
adequately described by Alexander. Hinge of right 



14 



valve consists of a high pointed tooth and subja- 
cent socket connected to a finely crenulate inter- 
terminal groove, formed along the thickened dor- 
sal margin, connecting posteriorly to an elongate 
carved tooth which lies above the groove. Hinge of 
the left valve the antithesis of the right. Inner 
margin and line of concrescence coincident. An- 
terior margin with about ten widely spaced simple 
pore canals; posterior margin bears about six. 
Hinge teeth and sockets noncrenulate. Muscula- 
ture that of the genus. 

Dimensions: Fig. 15: female; length 0.54 mm; 
height 0.32 mm; biconvexity 0.28 mm. 

Fig. 16: male; length 0.63 mm; 
height 0.29 mm ; biconvexity 0.27 mm. 

Occurrence: Black Creek throughout and low- 
ermost Peedee only, localities A, C, G, H, I, and J. 
U.S.N.M. 128947, 128948, 128949, 128950, 128951. 

Remarks: The present specimens are slightly 
more acute posteriorly and the ventral and median 
ridges terminate approximately along the same 
vertical line, otherwise they are conspscific with 
C. gapensis Alexander. Sexual dimorphism is 
marked with male dimorphs being nearly one- 
third longer than the females. 

Trachyleberis (?) praecursora Brown, n. sp. 

Plate 7, Figures 20-25 

Carapace small, subrhomboidal in lateral view ; 
dorsal margin straight; ventral margin straight 
to concave medially ; anterior margin broadly and 
evenly rounded ; posterior margin angulate, 
pointed. 

Anterior margin strongly and finely denticulate 
with about 20 spines, more pronounced ventrally ; 
posterior margin with about four blunt spines 
ventrally; a short ridge, highest posterad, rises 
near the antero- ventral junction, extends adjacent 
to and above the ventral margin, swings gently 
inward medially, and terminates above abruptly 
compressed posterior ; a faint dorsal ridge, high- 
est posteriorly, commences postjacent to a sub- 
dued eye tubercle, outlines the dorsal margin 
above, turns inward posterad, and terminates 
above compressed anterior ; a median ridge com- 
mences in the anterior third, ventrally. passes 
through the inflated subcentral node and connects 
to the dorsal ridge posteriorly. Surface, medially, 
is discretely reticulate, anterior and posterior 
thirds smooth. 

Hinge in right valve a high ovate pointed tooth 



and large ovate postjacent socket, long interter- 
minal bar terminating in a weak elongate socket 
connected to a high rounded tooth formed at out- 
ward inflation of marginal area ; left valve an- 
tithesis of right. Inner margin and line of con- 
crescence coincide, not perfectly coincident along 
anterior ; deep subcentral depression. Musculature 
that of the genus. 

Dimensions : Holotype : length 0.53 mm ; height 
0.28 mm; biconvexity 0.20 mm. 

Occurrence: Lower Peedee only. This species 
apparently occurs only in the Exogyra cancellata 
subzone, localities A and F. U.S.N.M. 128952, 
128953, 128954, 128955, 128956, 128957. 

Remarks : Female dimorphs can be distinguish- 
ed by their relatively shorter and broader cara- 
paces. The species is provisionally placed in Tra- 
chyleberis Brady because of slight differences in 
hingement from that given for Trachyleberis 
Brady. Our specimens show a slight swelling 
(secondary tooth?) at the anterior end of the 
interterminal bar in the left valve and a corre- 
sponding shallow socket in the right valve. Com- 
parison with Toulmina Munsey (Munsey, 1953, 
p. 6) may show our species to belong to that genus. 

Genus Platycythereis Triebel, 1940 

Platycythereis costatana angula (Schmidt) 

Plate 6, Figures 22-25 

Cythereis costatana angula Schmidt, 1948, Jour. 
Paleontology, vol. 22, p. 420, pi. 61, figs. 17- 
18. 

Paracythereis semilenis Schmidt, 1948, Jour. 
Paleontology, vol. 22, p. 418, pi. 61, fig. 14. 

Carapace subquadrate in side view ; dorsal mar- 
gin straight to slightly convex; ventral margin 
straight ; anterior margin broadly and evenly 
rounded, strongly and broadly rimmed, spinose; 
posterior margin compressed, subtriangular, 
sharply rounded, weakly rimmed, spinose. 

Rounded ridge, reticulate anterad — punctate 
posterad, extends from just behind anterior dor- 
sal angle back along dorsal margin to posterior 
dorsal angle, turns at right angles, and extends 
parallel to and above dorsal third of compressed 
posterior. A second short ridge extends from just 
anterad of midlength back along ventral margin 
to posterior ventral angle, turns at right angles, 
and extends parallel to and above ventral third of 
compressed posterior. Posterior margin with 
about six well developed spines on dorsal third. 



15 



Subdued subcentral node. Anterior third bears 
two rows of coarse reticulations, one row of which 
passes along and continues on underside of the 
dorsal ridge. Middle and anterior thirds punctate. 
Hingement and musculature that of the genus. 

Dimensions : Fig. 22 : length 0.72 mm ; height 
0.35 mm; biconvexity 0.16 mm. 

Occurrence: Peedee only, localities A and C. 
U.S.N.M. 128958, 128959, 128960, 128961. 

Remarks : The flat compressed carapace, hinge- 
ment, marginal rims, and very subdued subcen- 
tral node of this species place it in the genus 
Platycythereis Triebel. The writer has compared 
the more strongly spinose molts identified by 
Schmidt as Paracythereis semilenis Schmidt with 
the species at hand and considers them to be con- 
specific. 

Genus Protocythere Triebel, 1938 
■ Protocythere paratriplicata Swain 
Plate 3, Figures 16, 17 

? Cythere fo&rsteriana Bosquet, Alexander, 
1929, Texas Univ. Bull. 2907, p. 82, pi. 6, 
figs. 1, 11. 

(Not) Bosquet, 1847, Mem. Soc. Roy. Sci. 
Liege, nol. 4, p. 364, pi. 2, figs. 4a-d. 
Protocythere paratriplicata Swain, 1952, U. S. 
Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 234-B, p. 85, pi. 9, 
figs. 18-21. 
Swain has recently described this species and 
discussed its generic position. 

Dimensions: Fig. 16: length 0.61 mm; height 
0.27 mm. 

Occurrence: Black Creek only, localities G, J, 
and K. U.S.N.M. 128962, 128963. 

Remarks : Specimens from the outcropping sec- 
tions are generally smaller than the holotype de- 
scribed by Swain from a well section, otherwise 
they are judged to be conspecific. Average length 
of the present specimens is ±0.60 mm. 

Genus Progonocythere Sylvester— Bradley, 

1948 

Progonocythere caswellensis Brown, n. sp. 

Plate 4, Figures 14, 15 

Carapace small, subquadrate in lateral view; 
widest anterad, highest just posterad of median ; 
dorsal margin straight; ventral margin slightly 
concave medially ; anterior margin broadly round- 
ed, finely spinose ventrally ; posterior margin less 



broadly rcunded, slightly extended medially, finely 
spinose. 

Entire valve surface covered with high, narrow 
square-sided ridges, vertically aligned and more 
pronounced ventrally ; ridges on the anterior 
third are slightly longer and roughly subparallel 
to the anterior margin ; dorsad and posterad, the 
ridges are more subdued. Closely spaced square- 
sided ridges and deep interridge areas give the 
valves a very distinct deeply reticulate appear- 
ance, vertically aligned. 

Hinge of left valve with terminal elongate den- 
ticulate sockets and a finely crenulate interter- 
minal bar all located high on the marginal rim. 
Hinge of right valve counterpart of the left. 

Dimensions : Holotype : length 0.63 mm ; height 
0.31 mm; convexity 0.16 mm. 

Occurrence: Peedee only, localities A, C, and 
F. U.S.N.M. 128964, 128965. 

Remarks: This species bears closest resem- 
blance to Progonocythere hieroglyphica Swain 
and Peterson from the Sundance formation of 
Jurassic age. This is the first recorded occurrence 
of the genus in the Cretaceous. 

Genus Cytheridea Bosquet, 1850 

Stephenson (1936) erected several subgenera 
under the genus Cytheridea Bosquet. Among 
these subgenera were Haplo cytheridea and Cli- 
thro cytheridea which Stephenson, at a later date 
(1946), raised to the rank of genera. The critical 
point of distinction between Haplocytheridea and 
Clithrocytheridea was defined as slight differences 
in hingement. Cretaceous specimens of Haplocy- 
theridea and Clithrocytheridea from North Caro- 
lina exhibit hinge structure in which hingement 
as defined for both Haplocytheridea and Clithro- 
cytheridea is present in the same species. In addi- 
tion, reversal of hingement, in which the normal 
(?) dentition of a right valve appears in the left 
valve, is commonly observed. Schmidt (1948) 
commented on this mixed dentition in connection 
with Cretaceous specimens. Swain (1952) and 
Alexander (1933) have pointed out cases of re- 
versal of hingement and valve overlap in Creta- 
ceous Cytheridea. 

In this paper both Haplocytheridea and Cli- 
throcytheridea are reduced in rank to subgenera 
with the feeling that further revision will be nec- 
essary as additional populations are studied. Spe- 
cies in this paper are given as Cytheridea (Hap- 
locytheridea) if they exhibit a prominent accom- 



16 



modation groove dorsad of the interterminal area, 
whereas species are given as Cytheridea (Clithro- 
cytheridea) if the accommodation groove and at- 
tendant valve overlap relationships are absent. 

Subgenus Haplocytheridea Stephenson, 1936 

Cytheridea (Haplocytheridea) fabaformis 

( Berry ) 

Plate 2, Figures 7, 8 

Cytherella fabaformis Berry, 1925, Am. Jour. 

Sci., 5th ser., vol. 9, p. 487, fig. 13. 
Cytheridea fabaformis Alexander, 1929, Texas 
Univ. Bull. 2907, p. 76, pi. 5, fig. 18. 
Alexander, 1934, Jour. Paleontology, vol. 8, 
p. 224. 
Haplocytheridea ? fabaformis (Berry) , 
Schmidt, 1948, Jour. Paleontology, vol. 22, 
p. 426, pi. 62, fig. 23, text fig. 2e. 
Haplocytheridea ? fabaformis var. multilira 
Schmidt, 1948, Jour. Paleontology, vol. 22, 
p. 426, pi. 62, figs. 25, 26. 
Dimensions : Fig. 7 : female ; length 0.60 mm ; 
height 0.34 mm. 

Fig. 8 : male ; length 0.64 mm ; 
height 0.30 mm. 

Occurrence: Peedee only, localities A, B, C, D, 
E, and F. U.S.N.M. 128966, 128967. 

Remarks: North Carolina specimens are iden- 
tical with those specimens occurring in the Mon- 
mouth formation and originally described by 
Berry, 1925. A variety H. ? fabaformis multilira 
Schmidt was described by Schmidt, 1948. Exam- 
ination has shown the species and variety to re- 
flect only minor differences and the two are con- 
sidered to be conspecific by the writer. 

Cytheridea (Haplocytheridea) sarectaensis 
Brown, n. sp. 

Plate 7, Figures 1-3 

Shell in side view, oblong-ovate; highest medi- 
ally; dorsal margin convex; ventral margin 
straight ; anterior broadly rounded with about ten 
short spines, most pronounced ventrally ; posterior 
margin obliquely rounded, slightly extended ven- 
trally, with about seven short spines along postero- 
ventral margin. 

Surface of valves strongly pitted, puncta ar- 
ranged in about nine subvertical rows separated 
by short rounded ridges, in the anterior and me- 
dian two-thirds of valve ; furrows most pro- 
nounced medio-dorsally, incipient furrows extend 
to a rounded steep posterior slope ; anterior fourth 



rounded, slopes steeply to wide slanting anterior 
margin. Anterior and posterior thirds, ventrally, 
with a slight bulbous protrudance. Internal fea- 
tures those of the genus. 

Dimensions : Holotype : length 0.75 mm ; height 
0.40 mm; biconvexity 0.38 mm. 

Occurrence: Peedee only, locality E. U.S.N.M. 
128968, 128969, 128970. 

Remarks: This species belongs to the large 
group which includes Cytheridea (H.) moodyi, 
Cytheridea (H.) veatchi, Cytheridea (H.) veatchi 
aquia, and Cytheridea (H.) ruginosa. The present 
specimens are closest to C. ruginosa Alexander 
in ornamentation. They are higher anteriorly and 
posteriorly with steeper posterior and anterior 
slopes than that species, and more tumid in lateral 
view. Female dimorphs are shorter and more 
tumid than the males. 

Cytheridea (Haplocytheridea) councilli 
Brown, n. sp. 

Plate 2, Figures 12-16 

Carapace in side view, elongate-ovate; highest 
post-median, widest behind anterior cardinal 
angle ; dorsal margin convex ; ventral margin 
straight to slightly sinuous ; anterior margin 
rounded, obtuse dorsally; ventral margin less 
evenly rounded, weakly acuminate ventrally. Left 
valve larger than right except along anterior mar- 
gin, overlap greatest along postero-ventral third. 

Entire carapace very coarsely and evenly pit- 
ted, deepest pits (about six) are behind and paral- 
lel to the anterior margin. Viewed ventrally the 
anterior margin on both valves is weakly rimmed 
below. 

Hinge of right valve consists of terminal 
notched cusps connected by a narrow crenulate 
bar postjacent to the dorsal margin. The left valve 
bears narrow notched sockets connected by a 
narrow crenulate groove, separated from dorsal 
margin by a very weakly grooved shelf. Muscula- 
ture that of the genus. 

Dimensions: Holotype: length 0.59 mm; height 
0.26 mm; biconvexity 0.21 mm. 

Occurrence : Peedee only, localities A, B, D, and 
F. U.S.N.M. 128971, 128972, 128973, 128974, 
128975. 

Remarks: The coarsely pitted surface and 
rimmed anterior margin serves to distinguish this 
species. Named for Richard Councill, geologist, 
Atlantic Coast Line Railroad. 



17 



Cytheridea (Haplocytheridea) plummeri 

Alexander 

Plate 2, Figures 9-11 

Cytheridea plummeri Alexander, 1929, Texas 
Univ. Bull. 2907, p. 73, pi. 5, figs. 5-8. 
Alexander and Alexander, 1933, Am. Mid- 
land Naturalist, vol. 14, no. 3, p. 283, figs. 
1-4. 
Haplocytheridea ? plummeri (Alexander) 
Schmidt, 1948, Jour. Paleontology, vol. 22, 
p. 425, pi. 62, figs. 27-29 ; text fig. 2f . 
Haplocytheridea ? sp. aff. H. ? plummeri (Alex- 
ander) Swain, 1952, U. S. Geol. Survey Prof. 
Paper 234-B, p. 79, pi. 8, fig. 15. 
These specimens agree with Alexander's de- 
scription. The species as illustrated by Alexander 
shows anterior and postero-ventral spines. The 
present specimens have about 12 sharp well- 
defined spines along the anterior margin medially 
and ventrally. About six sharp spines, angled pos- 
teriorly, extend along the posterior third of the 
ventral margin to the posterior acumination of 
the right valve. Spines weak to absent on the left 
valve. 

Left valve hinge consists of anterior and pos- 
terior sockets connected by a crenulate groove 
and separated from the dorsal margin by a well 
developed accommodation groove (Ausweich- 
furche) . Right valve consists of terminal notched 
teeth separated by a narrow crenulate bar and ly- 
ing above a shallow groove adjacent to the dorsal 
margin. Musculature that of the genus. 

Dimensions : Fig. 9 : male ; length 0.80 mm ; 
height 0.39 mm. 

Fig. 10 : female ; length 0.69 mm ; 
height 0.40 mm. 

Occurrence: Peedee only, localities A and D. 
U.S.N.M. 128976, 128977, 128978. 

Cytheridea (Haplocytheridea) wilmingtonensis 

Brown, n. sp. 

Plate 7, Figures 4-9 

Carapace in side view, ovate; left valve mark- 
edly larger than right around entire periphery; 
dorsal margin strongly convex; ventral margin 
sinuous; anterior margin broadly rounded; pos- 
terior margin less strongly rounded, extended ven- 
trally; anterior margin weakly denticulate be- 
low ; posterior margin with two to three weak 
spines at postero-ventral junction. 



Surface of right valve: punctate, arranged in 
vertical rows or weak furrows, medially ; posterior 
fourth bears a short, bulbous sub-ventral ridge, 
flanked anterad and posterad by short concave 
furrows; post-medially is an irregular bulbous 
ridge, anterad of which is a depressed area adja- 
cent to the dorsal margin and containing one or 
two irregularly oblique furrows which die out 
medially. Surface of left valve : the anterior half 
of this valve is the antithesis of the right valve, 
the posterior third is smoothly convex lacking 
the ridge and furrows of its right valve counter- 
part. 

Muscle scar consists of four round spots in a 
sub-vertical row located slightly antero-median, 
forward of which are two more spots. Inner mar- 
gin and line of concrescence coincide. Hingement 
and musculature that of the genus. 

Dimensions: Holotype: length 0.57 mm; height 
0.33 mm; biconvexity 0.25 mm. 

Occurrence: Peedee only, locality A. U.S.N.M. 
128979, 128980, 128981, 128982, 128983, 128984. 

Remarks: In outline, arrangement of surface 
ridges and furrows, and in internal features the 
present specimens are judged to belong to the sub- 
genus Haplocytheridea Stephenson. The degree 
of overlap and strength of surface sculpture is 
very variable with the locality but not within the 
locality. The same variability is present in speci- 
mens from various wells. The species is appar- 
ently confined to the basal Peedee and should 
make an excellent marker for picking the Peedee- 
Black Creek contact. 

Cytheridea (Haplocytheridea) ulrichi (Berry) 
Plate 2, Figures 4, 5 

Cythere ulrichi Berry, 1925, Am. Jour. Sci., 
5th ser., vol. 23, no. 9, p. 483, fig. 3. 

Haplocytheridea ? ulrichi (Berry), Schmidt, 
1948, Jour. Paleontology, vol. 22, p. 426, pi. 
62, figs. 18, 19. 

Dimensions: Figure 4: male; length 0.61 mm; 
height 0.33 mm; biconvexity 0.27 mm. 

Occurrence: Peedee only, localities A, B, C, D, 
E, and F. U.S.N.M. 128985, 128986. 

Remarks : Internal and external features of this 
species have been adequately described by 
Schmidt, 1948. The hinge structure as described 
by Schmidt is present in the North Carolina speci- 
mens. The writer considers this hinge structure 



18 



to represent a variant of that commonly found in 
the subgenus Haplocytheridea Stephenson. These 
atypical examples of hinge structure are in need 
of further study as has been pointed out by the 
writer and others. Schmidt (1948, p. 426) has 
recently described the species. 

Cytheridea (Haplocytheridea) carolinensis 

Brown, n. sp. 

Plate 2, Figures 17-20 

Shell subtriangular in side view; highest me- 
dially ; dorsal margin gently convex, straight pos- 
terad; ventral margin sinuous; anterior margin 
broadly and evenly rounded ; posterior margin 
less broadly rounded. Left valve larger than right 
except along anterior margin. 

Posterior and anterior fourths inflated, sur- 
mounted by bulbous ridges subparallel to anterior 
and posterior margins respectively ; anterior slope 
in front and below ridge sharply truncate, pass- 
ing into compressed marginal area; posterior 
slope sharply truncate dorsally, bulbous above 
ventrally, passing into narrowly compressed mar- 
ginal area. 

Surface finely reticulate in posterior and ante- 
rior thirds; medially, between bulbous extremi- 
ties, are three to four deeply pitted furrows more 
pronounced anterad and dorsad. 

Hinge of left valve ; terminal crenulate sockets 
and narrow crenulate interterminal groove, sep- 
arated from dorsal margin by weakly developed 
accommodation groove. Hinge of right valve an- 
tithesis of left. 

Dimensions : Holotype : length 0.56 mm ; height 
0.30 mm; biconvexity 0.22 mm. 

Occurrence: Peedee only, localities A, D, and F. 
U.S.N.M. 128987, 128988, 128989, 128990. 

Remarks: In bulbous extremities this species 
resembles C. oblongus n. sp. (p. 19). The me- 
dial pitted furrows and bulbous ends serve to 
distinguish this species. Female dimorphs are 
shorter and more tumid, medially, than the males. 

Cytheridea (Haplocytheridea) punctura 

( Schmidt ) 

Plate 2, Figures 26-28 

Haplocytheridea punctura Schmidt, 1948, Jour. 
Paleontology, vol. 22, p. 425, pi. 61, figs. 27- 
31. 
Dimensions : Fig. 26 : female ; length 0.70 mm ; 
height 0.46 mm. 



Fig. 27: male; length 0.82 mm; 
height 0.44 mm. 

Occurrence: Peedee only, localities A, C, E, and 
F. U.S.N.M. 128991, 128992, 128993. 

Remarks: Schmidt (1948, p. 425) has recently 
described the species. 

Cytheridea (Haplocytheridea) monmouthensis 
Berry 

Plate 2, Figure 6 
Cytheridea monmouthensis Berry, 1925, Am. 
Jcur. Sci., 5th ser., vol. 9, p. 486, fig. 10. 
Alexander, 1929, Texas Univ. Bull. 2907, 
p. 74, pi. 5, figs. 11-14. 
Cytheridea (Haplocytheridea) monmouthensis 
Berry, Swain, 1948, Maryland Dept. Geology, 
Mines, and Water Res. Bull. 2, p. 212, pi. 14, 
fig. 14. 
Haplocytheridea monmouthensis (Berry) 
Swain, 1952, Ostracoda from Wells in North 
Carolina: pt. 2, Mesozoic Ostracoda, U. S. 
Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 234-B, p. 79, pi. 8, 
fig. 19. 
Dimensions: Fig. 6: female; length 0.68 mm; 
height 0.44 mm ; biconvexity 0.33 mm. 

Occurrence: Peedee and Black Creek, localities 
A, C, D, G, H, I, J, and K. U.S.N.M. 128994. 

Remarks: The strength of the median sub- 
vertical furrows varies with individuals. Internal 
features that of the genus. Swain (1952, p. 79) 
has recently described the species. 

Subgenus Clithrocytheridea Stephenson, 1936 

Cytheridea (Clithrocytheridea) oblongus 

Brown, n. sp. 

Plate 2, Figures 21-25 

Carapace in side view, oblong; highest antero- 
median, widest medially ; dorsal margin slightly 
arched along anterior third, straight along pos- 
terior third ; ventral margin sinuous, concave me- 
dially ; anterior margin rounded, obtuse ventrally ; 
posterior margin more sharply rounded, obtuse 
ventrally. Left valve larger than right and over- 
laps, most pronounced ventrally and along pos- 
terc-dorsal third. 

Carapace finely reticulate, irregular ; reticula- 
tions extend laterally in closely-spaced irregular 
rows along median and ventro-lateral surfaces ; 
reticulations are subarcuate along dorsal portions 
of carapace. There is an inflated ridge paralleling 
the anterior margin which is sharply truncate in 
front ; a posterior ridge above the posterior mar- 
gin is sharply truncate at the posterior margin 



19 



ventrally with a somewhat gentler slope dorsally. 
In ventral view the anterior and posterior mar- 
gins appear square above and below, gently slop- 
ing to the margin medially. 

Right valve consists of terminal notched cusps, 
separated by a finely denticulate groove along the 
dorsal margin. Left valve consists of terminally 
notched sockets and a finely crenulate bar below 
the dorsal margin. Line of concrescence and inner 
margin coincide except along anterior margin 
where they are widely separated ventrally. Mus- 
culature that of the genus. 

Dimensions : Holotype : length 0.60 mm ; height 
0.25 mm ; biconvexity 0.22 mm. 

Occurrence : Lower Peedee only, localities A 
and F. U.S.N.M. 128995, 128996, 128997, 128998, 
128999. 

Remarks: This small distinct species occurs 
only rarely in the subsurface. Female dimorphs 
are shorter and slightly more tumid than the 
males. 

Genus Cytheropteron Sars, 1865 

Subgenus Cytheropteron Sars, s. s. 

Cytheropteron (Cytheropteron) penderensis 

Brown, n. sp. 

Plate 6, Figures 12, 13 

Carapace subovate in lateral view ; highest post- 
erad of midlength; dorsal margin moderately 
arched; ventral margin straight, slightly sinuous 
anterad ; anterior margin evenly rounded ; poster- 
ior margin sharply rounded, extended in a blunt, 
compressed caudal process. Left valve slightly 
larger than right. 

Ventral third of valve strongly inflated, topped 
by a weak sinuous ridge ; inflated portion of valve 
covers marginal area ; postero-ventral slope sharp- 
ly truncate. Medially, valves are coursely reticu- 
late with separating sinuous ridges generally 
aligned normal to the alate ridge. Hingement and 
muscle scar that of the genus. 

Dimensions : Holotype : length 0.55 mm ; height 
0.32 mm ; convexity 0.21 mm. 

Occurrence: Peedee only, localities A and C. 
U.S.N.M. 129000, 129001. 

Subgenus Eocytheropteron Alexander, 1933 

Cytheropteron (Eocytheropteron) straillis 

Brown, n. sp. 

Plate 6, Figures 14, 15 
Shell acuminate — ovate in lateral view ; highest 



medially; dorsal margin moderately convex; ven- 
tral margin straight; anterior margin broadly 
and evenly rounded; posterior margin narrowly 
rounded with a blunt compressed caudate exten- 
sion ventro-medially. Ventral half of valves swol- 
len, sharply truncate, overhanging or concealing 
marginal area medially. Anterior third of valves 
bear three to four subdued ridges parallel to an- 
terior margin. Median third coarsely punctate 
with about 20 coarse, widely-spaced pits. 

Hinge in left valve bears an anterior shallow 
crenulate socket, a long weakly crenulate bar con- 
necting to a crenulate posterior socket which lies 
below the marginal area; a very subdued groove 
separates the interterminal bar from the dorsal 
margin. Muscle scar that of the genus. 

Dimensions : Holotype : length 0.69 mm ; height 
0.36 mm. 

Occurrence: Peedee only, localities A, D, and 
F. U.S.N.M. 129002, 129003. 

Cytheropteron (Eocytheropteron) striatum 

Brown, n. sp. 

Plate 6, Figures 16, 17 

Carapace small, egg-shaped; highest and wid- 
est medially; dorsal margin gently arched, 
straight along the hinge line; ventral margin 
more strongly arched, weakly angulate medially; 
anterior margin rounded, slightly extended medi- 
ally ; posterior margin subtriangular, bluntly cau- 
date medially. Venter is inflated and overhangs 
margin medially. 

Midportion of valves moderately punctate. Pos- 
terior third, ventrally, with about four fine widely- 
spaced ridges on each valve; ridges swing down 
and forward along the ventral surface, swing up 
and across the anterior third terminating anterad 
of the anterior cardinal angle. 

Internal features those of the genus. 

Dimensions : Holotype : length 0.51 mm ; height 
0.26 mm; biconvexity 0.22 mm. 

Occurrence: Black Creek only, localities G, H, 
I, J, and K. U.S.N.M. 129004, 129005. 

Genus Velarocythere Brown, n. gen. 
Type species: Velarocythere scuffeltonensis 
Brown, n. sp. 

Shell oblong-ovate in lateral view, may be gross- 



20 



]y inflated ; greatest height median ; dorsal margin 
gently convex to sinuous ; ventral margin straight 
with a concave reentrant antero-medially ; an- 
terior margin broadly and evenly rounded, spinose 
below, with one or two rows of deep oblong pits 
behind and immediately adjacent to the margin ; 
posterior margin less broadly rounded to suba- 
cute. Coarsely unisulcate or bisulcate subjacent 
to the anterior cardinal angle. Left valve typically 
larger than right, most conspicuous overlap along 
dorsum and anterad of anterior cardinal angle. 
Cardinal angles obtuse. Convexity of valves 
strong; surface of valves grossly reticulate to 
smooth and sparsely punctate. 

Hinge of right valve consists of a high pointed 
anterior tooth, notched anterad, a subjacent ovate 
socket connecting with a wide faintly crenulate 
groove lying along the dorsal margin and term- 
inating posterad at a large square-tooth at the 
posterior cardinal angle. Left valve antithesis of 
the right. Line of concrescence and broad inner 
margin coincident. Muscle scar, located in a shal- 
low submedian pit, consists of a curvilinear row 
of three spots and a single larger anterior spot. 
Female dimorphs are shorter and more tumid 
than the male. 

Geologic range: Upper Cretaceous 

Relationships: This genus shows some affinity 

to Anticythereis Van den Bold (Pseudocythereis 

Jennings) but can be separated on the basis of 

size, hingement, and external shell characteristics. 

Velarocythere scuffeltonensis Brown, n. sp. 
Plate 5, Figures 5-9 

Carapace oblong-ovate in lateral view ; widest 
anterad; highest medially; dorsal margin weakly 
convex, sinuous posterad ; ventral margin slightly 
concave antero-medially ; anterior margin broadly 
rounded ; posterior margin more narrowly round- 
ed ; left valve larger than right, extending beyond 
the right along the ventrum and markedly at the 
broadly obtuse cardinal angles. 

Midportion of valves strongly inflated ; ends 
slightly compressed; entire valve surface very 
coarsely reticulate ; outlining the anterior margin 
posterad are two concentrically arranged rows 
of deep depressions bounded dorsally by a short 
oblique sulcus adjacent to the anterior cardinal 
angle and extending to the dorsal margin just 
posterad of the anterior cardinal angle. 

Hinge of right valve consists of a high rounded 
anterior tooth and postjacent socket, a long wide 
crenulate interterminal bar connecting to a high 



square posterior tooth; left valve antithesis of 
right. Line of concrescence and broad inner mar- 
gin coincident. Muscle scars, located in a shallow 
submedian pit, consist of a subvertical row of 
three spots and a single anterior spot. 

Dimensions: Holotype: female; length 0,75 
mm ; height 0.34 mm ; biconvexity 0.35 mm. 

Occurrence: Peedee only, localities A, C, and 
F. U.S.N.M. 129006, 129007, 129008, 129009, 
129010. 

Velarocythere legrandi Brown, n. sp. 
Plate 5, Figures 1-4 

Carapace subovate in side view ; widest in ante- 
rior third ; greatest height medially ; dorsal margin 
gently convex to sinuous ; ventral margin slightly 
concave medially ; anterior margin broadly round- 
ed, compressed ; posterior margin less broadly 
rounded, compressed ; ends bear two parallel rows 
of five spines; left valve larger than right, ex- 
tending beyond the other ventrally and at the 
broadly obtuse cardinal angles. 

Midportion of valves very strongly inflated 
with a tumid overhang ventrally, sharply truncate 
anterad and separated from the anterior fourth 
by a sharp elliptical ridge which terminates at 
the dorsal margin medially, and lies above and 
subparallel to the ventral margin, terminating 
subjacent to the postero-ventral junction ; midpor- 
tion of valve grossly and subconcentrically re- 
ticulate ; compressed posterior one-fourth smooth 
to slightly papillose ventrally ; the anterior fourth, 
below the sharp elliptical ridge, bears two con- 
centric rows of deep depressions bounded dorsal- 
ly by a shallow oblique sulcus subjacent to the 
anterior cardinal angle. 

Dimensions : Figs. 3, 4 : length 0.82 mm ; height 
0.33 mm ; biconvexity 0.39 mm. 

Occurrence: Peedee only, localities A and C. 
U.S.N.M. 129011, 129012. 

Remarks : The grossly reticulate midportion 
readily distinguishes this species. Named for H. 
E. LeGrand, U. S. Geological Survey. 

Velarocythere cacumenata Brown, n. sp. 
Plate 5, Figures 13-15 

Shell in side view, oblong-ovate; widest at an- 
terior one third ; highest post-medially ; dorsal 
margin weakly convex, sinuous posterad; ventral 
margin slightly concave medially; ends rounded, 
finely spinose. Left valve larger than right, ex- 
tending beyond the right along the ventrum and 
markedly at the broad and obtuse cardinal angles. 
Dorsal edge thickened. 



21 



Surface of valves glossy, evenly and discretely 
pitted. Midportion of valves strongly inflated with 
bulbous and overhanging expansions along the 
dorsum and ventrum post-medially ; bulbous por- 
tions lie on either side of a broad, shallow post- 
median sulcus ; outlining the anterior margin, 
posterad, is a row of about five deep coarse depres- 
sions, most pronounced medially and truncated 
dorsad by a short oblique sulcus adjacent to the 
anterior cardinal angle. Hingement and muscu- 
lature that of the genus. 

Dimensions : Holotype : length 0.72 mm ; height 
0.35 mm; biconvexity 0.36 mm. 

Occurrence: Peedee only, localities A, C, and 
F. U.S.N.M. 129013, 129014, 129015. 

Remarks : The deep anterior pits characteristic 
of the genus are not as well developed as in other 
species of Velar vcythere. 

Velarocythere eikonata Brown, n. sp. 
Plate 5, Figures 10-12 

The shape, overlap, and valve sculpture of this 
species is identical with that described for V. 
cacumenata with one exception. The surface of 
this species is coarsely reticulate, with large, 
broad deep pits, and not glossy and discretely 
pitted as in V. cacumenata. 

Dimensions: Holotype: length 0.68 mm; height 
0.33 mm ; biconvexity 0.33 mm. 

Occurrence : Peedee only, localities A, C, and F. 
U.S.N.M. 129016, 129017, 129018. 

Remarks: The smooth shelled V. cacumenata 
occurs higher stratigraphically in the Peedee 
formation than V. eikonata. 

Velarocythere arachoides (Berry) 
Plate 5, Figures 16-18 

Cythere arachoides Berry, 1925, Am. Jour. Sci., 
5th ser., vol. 9, p. 484, fig. 5. 

Cythere rectangulajjora Berry, 1925, Am. Jour. 
Sci., 5th ser., vol. 9, p. 483, fig. 4. 

Brachycythere arachoides (Berry), Schmidt, 
1948, Jour. Paleontology, vol. 22, p. 415, pi. 
62, figs. 13-16. 

Brachycythere arachoides (Berry), Swain, 



1952, U. S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 234-B, 
p. 81, pi. 9, fig. 22. 

Shell in side view, subpyriform; highest post- 
median ; dorsal margin weakly arched, sinuate 
anterad ; ventral margin straight, convex medi- 
ally ; anterior margin evenly rounded ; posterior 
margin sharply rounded, extended medially. 
Valves subequal, left valve larger than right, 
overlap greatest at cardinal angles. 

Anterior margin compressed, smooth dorsally, 
coarsely pitted ventrally with two rows of sub- 
parallel deep pits ; posterior margin smooth, com- 
pressed ; centrally, valves strongly inflated, coarse- 
ly reticulate ; strong submedian pit behind and 
below anterior cardinal angle, bounded dorsally 
by a short deep furrow forming a reentrant in 
dorsal margin ; ventrally pit is bounded by sub- 
central short ridge and subjacent furrow. 

The right valve hinge consists of a high pointed 
tooth with postjacent socket slightly below a long 
smooth bar, medially formed by the thickened 
valve edge, a high posterior square-shaped blunt 
tooth slightly below the interterminal bar. The 
left valve hinge consists of a deep socket with 
postjacent high pointed tooth, a long bar formed 
by the thickened valve edge and connected to an 
elongate square-shaped socket. Musculature, lo- 
cated in pit situated dorso-medially below anterior 
end of interterminal bar, consists of an L-shaped 
scar on the anterior pit slope and three elongate 
scars on the posterior pit slope. 

Dimensions : Fig. 16 : length 0.75 mm ; height 
0.34 mm. 

Occurrence: Peedee only, localities A, B, C, E, 
and F. U.S.N.M. 129019, 129020, 129021. 

Remarks: The hingement, musculature and 
shape of the carapace exhibited by this species 
differs in detail from that described for Brachy- 
cythere Alexander. The valve overlap, obtuse card- 
inal angles, deep subparallel pits behind the an- 
terior margin and general surface sculpture place 
these specimens in the new genus Velarocythere 
Brown. Compare dentition of Brachycythere Alex- 
ander (Plate 4, Fig. 10) with that of Velarocythere 
Brown (Plate 5, Fig. 18). Note the shape and 
position of the posterior tooth in both figures. 



22 



Genus Cytherideis Jones, 1856 

Cytherideis mayeri (Howe and Garrett) . 

Plate 3, Figures 12, 13 

Bythocypris ? mayeri Howe and Garrett, 1934, 
Louisana Dept. Cons., Geol. Bull. no. 4, p. 29, 
pi. 1, figs. 8-10. 
Xestoleberis mayeri (Howe and Garrett), 
Schmidt, 1948, Jour. Paleontology, vol. 22, 
p. 410, pi. 63, fig. 10, fig. 2 (text). 
Cytherideis mayeri (Howe and Garrett), Blake, 
1950, Jour. Paleontology, vol. 24, p. 179. 
Munsey, 1953, Jour. Paleontology, vol. 27, p. 13, 
pi. 3, fig. 4. 
Dimensions: Fig. 13: length 0.73 mm; height 

0.29 mm ; convexity 0.16 mm. 
Occurrence : Peedee only. This species is rare 
to common in subsurface Eocene and Paleocene 
formations in North Carolina. Localities A and E. 
U.S.N.M. 129022, 129023. 

Remarks: Schmidt (1948, p. 410) has recently 
described the species. 

Genus Monoceratina Roth, 1928 

Monoceratina biloba Schmidt 

Plate 3, Figures 14, 15 

Monoceratina biloba Schmidt, 1948, Jour. Pal- 
eontology, vol. 22, p. 412, pi. 61, fig. 9. 

Dimensions: Fig. 14: length 0.45 mm; height 
0.27 mm. 

Occurrence: Peedee, locality A. U.S.N.M. 1290- 
24, 129025. 

Remarks: Only one specimen, a molt, was ob- 
tained at the outcrop during the present study. 
The bulbous node on the ventral lobate area is 
well developed on our specimen, a right valve. 
Also figured is a complete carapace from a water 
well at the Oak Grove Air Base, Jones County, 
N. C. This specimen was taken from a sample at 
200-210 feet, Peedee formation. Schmidt (1948, 
p. 412) has recently described the species. 

Genus Loxoconcha Sars, 1866 

Loxoconcha neusensis Brown, n. sp. 

Plate 6, Figure 10 

Carapace long in relation to width, subquad- 
rate in lateral view ; dorsal margin straight ; ven- 
tral margin sinuous ; anterior margin broadly 
rounded ; posterior margin rounded ventrally, 
slightly angulate to straight dorsally, bluntly cau- 
date. Anterior and posterior ends compressed, 
posterior more so. Surface coarsely reticulate with 
rounded to angular pits generally subcircular in 



relation to margins. Ribs most prominent postero- 
ventrally. 

Dimensions: Holotype: length 0.55 mm; height 
0.19 mm; biconvexity 0.18 mm. 

Occurrence: Peedee only, localities A, C, and 

E. U.S.N.M. 129026. 

Remarks: This species is close to L. fletcheri 
Israelsky from the Cretaceous of Texas and Ar- 
kansas. It is more tumid and the posterior margin 
less rounded than that species. 

Loxoconcha seraphae Brown, n. sp. 
Plate 6, Figures 9-11 

Carapace subelliptical in lateral view; highest 
medially; widest just posterad of median; dorsal 
margin straight; ventral margin gently convex, 
swinging upward to a blunt submedial caudate 
process ; anterior margin broadly rounded, faintly 
rimmed above and below ; posterior obtusely angl- 
ed dorsally ; postero-ventral margin bears a strong 
lateral keel. 

Surface strongly reticulate, punctate; puncta 
arranged in subcircular rows generally converging 
posterad and anterad. 

Hinge characteristic of genus. Inner margin 
and line of concrescence distinctly separate along 
anterior margin. 

Dimensions : Holotype : length 0.52 mm ; height 
0.32 mm; biconvexity 0.20 mm. 

Occurrence : Peedee only, localities A, C, E, and 

F. U.S.N.M. 129027, 129028. 

Genus Orthonotacythere Alexander, 1933 

Orthonotacythere sulcata Brown, n. sp. 

Plate 6, Figures 6-8 

Shell small, quadrate in side view ; dorsal mar- 
gin straight; ventral margin convex; anterior 
margin broadly and evenly rounded; posterior 
margin obtusely rounded, moderately caudate 
dorsally. 

Antero-median broad vertical sulcus separates 
anterior third from posterior two-thirds of valve. 
Surface finely and evenly reticulate. Eight prom- 
inent tubercles on the valves ; two anterior tuber- 
cles lie behind and adjacent to the anterior mar- 
gin ; three tubercles, most pronounced posterad, 
parallel and lie above the ventral margin ; 2 weak 
tubercles subparallel and above the posterior mar- 
gin medially and dorsally ; a single large tubercle 
lies posterad of the median line dorsally. A prom- 
inent eyespot lies adjacent to the antero-dorsal 
junction. Hingement typical of the genus. 

Dimensions : Holotype r length 0.45 mm ; height 



23 



0.20 mm; biconvexity 0.18 mm. 

Occurrence: Black Creek only, localities G, H, 
I, J, and K. U.S.N.M. 129029, 129030, 129031. 

Remarks: This species most closely resembles 
0. scorbiculata Alexander but the arrangement of 
the tubercles serves to distinguish this species. 
These specimens like O. cristata Alexander exhibit 
a radial reticulate pattern on and around the 
base of the tubercle. 



Orthonotacythere hannai (Israelsky) 
Plate 6, Figures 3-5 

Cytheridea (?) hannai Israelsky, 1929, Arkan- 
sas Geol. Bull. 2, p. 12, pi. 2A, fig. 10. 

Cytheropteron hannai (Israelsky) Alexander, 
1929, Texas Univ. Bull. 2907, p. 105, PI. 9, 
fig. 16. 

Orthonotacythere hannai (Israelsky) Alexand- 
er, 1933, Jour. Paleontology, vol. 7, p. 200, 
pi. 25, fig. la-c; pi. 26, fig. 6a-b; pi. 27, fig. 
14a-b. 

Carapace in side view, ovate; dorsal margin 
straight; ventral margin convex, curving sharply 
upward posterad to a short thin caudate process 
at the poster o-dor sal junction; anterior margin 
obliquely rounded, weakly rimmed medially with 
about four blunt spines below; posterior margin 
obliquely rounded with a thin caudate extension 
dorsally; carapace compressed, widest ventrally. 

Surface of valve with an ill-defined antero- 
median sulcus dividing valve into two subequal 
parts ; three strongly developed tubercles lie above 
and parallel to the ventral margin ; a fourth well 
developed tubercle lies above the postero-dorsal 
junction; a fifth tubercle, more weakly developed, 
lies posterad of the anterior margin submedially ; 
about four or five weakly developed tubercles are 
indiscriminately present on the valve, the most 
pronounced of these lying at or adjacent to the 
antero-dorsal angle. Surface of the valves with 
well developed reticulations giving a striated ap- 
pearance to the ventrum. Internal features char- 
acteristic of the genus. 

Dimensions: Fig. 3: length 0.61 mm; height 
0.39 mm; biconvexity 0.37 mm. 

Occurrence: Peedee rare to common, Black 
Creek rare. Alexander lists this species both from 



Taylor and Navarro units in Texas. Localities 
A, B, C, D, E, F, I, and K. U.S.N.M. 129032, 
129033, 129034. 

Remarks : This distinctive species is very close 
to O. cristata Alexander from the Paleocene. A 
comparison with the Paleocene specimens of O. 
cristata has shown the present specimens to be 
slightly smaller, more ovate in side view and weak- 
ly denticulate along the anterior margin; other- 
wise they are seemingly identical. Alexander 
(1934, p. 65) suggested that the stronger elevation 
of the tubercles on O. cristata was a distinguish- 
ing feature. In the present study the strength 
and tuberculate pattern of the Cretaceous speci- 
mens seem to be identical with specimens of O. 
cristata from the Paleocene of Arkansas and 
Tennessee. 



Orthonotacythere tarensis Brown, n. sp. 
Plate 6, Figures 1, 2 



Carapace small, oblong to quadrate in side view ; 
dorsal margin straight; ventral margin convex; 
anterior margin broadly and evenly rounded; 
posterior margin less broadly rounded, weakly 
caudate dorsally. Anterior margin broad and com- 
pressed. 

A broad, shallow, weakly defined sulcus, slight- 
ly anterad of median, extends from dorsal mar- 
gin to midpoint. Surface discretely tuberculate. 
Anterad of sulcus dorsally, a low rounded tuber- 
cle; a second low tubercle above and adjacent to 
postero-ventral junction; two weak tubercles 
above and parallel to the dorsal margin posterad. 
Median and ventral portions of valve with about 
ten fine parallel striations, strongest parallel to 
ventro-lateral border. Entire surface very finely 
reticulate. Hingement that of the genus. 

Dimensions : Holotype : length 0.66 mm ; height 
0.27 mm ; biconvexity 0.25 mm. Fig. 2 : length 
0.71 mm; height 0.24 mm; biconvexity 0.23 mm. 

Occurrence: Black Creek only, localities G, H, 
I, J, and K. U.S.N.M. 129035, 129036. 

Remarks: Female dimorphs, generally broader 
in relation to length, seem to show stronger tuber- 
cular development. This species bears some re- 
semblance to Monoceratina trinodosa Alexander 
from the Weno of Texas. 



24 



Genus Cvtherura Sars, 1866 

Cytherura glossensis Brown, n. sp. 

Plate 6, Figures 18, 19 

Carapace small, spindle-shaped to ovate ; dorsal 
margin faintly convex ; ventral margin sinuous ; 
anterior margin obliquely rounded; posterior 
margin angular, elongate caudal process slightly 
above middle. 

A fine ridge commences in the anterior ventral 
area extends above and parallel to the ventral 
margin bends inward at the postero-ventral junc- 
tion and forms a distinct open loop on the pos- 
terior third ; a short weak ridge extends medially 
from the anterior margin, bifurcates atop the 
anterior slope and dies out antero-medially. Sur- 
face reticulate as a fine mesh arranged in about 
seven large weakly defined depressions. Internal 
features characteristic of the genus. 

Dimensions : Holotype : length 0.42 mm ; height 
0.18 mm ; biconvexity 0.14 mm. 

Occurrence: Rare to common in lower Peedee 
and in the Black Creek, localities A, C, F, G, H, 
I, J, and K. U.S.N.M. 129037, 129038. 

Genus Eucytherura Miiller, 1894 
Eucytherura curta (Jennings) 
Plate 6, Figures 20, 21 

Cythereis curta Jennings, 1936, Bull. Am. Pal- 
eontology, vol. 23, no. 78, p. 52, pi. 7, figs. 
4a-b. 

Carapace small, thick ; quadrate in lateral view ; 
dorsal margin straight; ventral margin straight 
to slightly concave medially, concealed by over- 
hang medially; dorsal and ventral margins con- 



verge posterad ; anterior margin broadly rounded ; 
posterior margin more sharply rounded, extended 
below in a blunt subdorsal caudate process. 

Surface of valves reticulate; a ventral ridge 
commences medially at the anterior margin swings 
backward to the ventral margin posterad of the 
antero-ventral junction, outlines and partly con- 
ceals the ventral margin from above, swings in- 
ward at the postero-ventral junction, and 
passes into the valve above the posterior mar- 
gin ventrally; a second ridge commences just 
dorsad of the first, extends backward medially 
to a subdued subcentral nodose process, turns ob- 
liquely, and extends backward to a point above 
the posterior margin dorsally; a third ill-defined 
ridge extends from the nodose process to the 
outer margin just anterad of a small glassy eye 
tubercle lying at the antero-dorsal junction. Short, 
eccentrically-arranged ridge-like projections nor- 
mal to the main ridges give the carapace a coarsely 
reticulate appearance. 

Hinge in right valve consists of an anterior 
pointed tooth and postjacent socket with an elong- 
ate carved crenulate tooth located at the postero- 
dorsal junction, the terminal teeth being connected 
by a faintly crenulate interterminal groove form- 
ed of the dorsal marginal edge. Hinge of the left 
valve the counterpart of the right valve. Line of 
concrescence and inner margin widely separated. 
Valves rugose internally. 

Dimensions : Fig. 20 : length 0.47 mm ; height 
0.23 mm. 

Occurrence: Peedee only, localities A, B, C, D, 
E, and F. U.S.N.M. 129039, 129040. 

Remarks : The shape, hingement, and nature 
of the carapace places this species in the genus 
Eucytherura Miiller. 



25 



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26 



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27 



Species 



Alatacythere alata atlantica (Schmidt) 
Bairdia pittensis n. sp. 
Bairdoppilata pondera Jennings 
Bairdoppilata postextensa (Swain) 
Brachycythere raleighensis n. sp. 
Brachycy there ledaforma (Israelsky) 
Brachycythere sphenoides (Reuss) 
Brachycythere nausiformis Swain 
Brachycythere rhomboidalis (Berry) 
Brachycythere plena Alexander 
Cytheridea (H.) monmouthensis Berry 
Cytheridea (H.) ulrichi (Berry) 
Cytheridea (H.) fabaformis (Berry) 
Cytheridea (~H.) councilli n. sp. 
Cytheridea (H.) plummeri Alexander 
Cytheridea (H.) sarectaensis n. sp. 
Cytheridea (H.) carolinensis n. sp. 
Cytheridea (H.) wilmingtonensis n. sp. 
Cytheridea (H.) punctura (Schmidt) 
Cytheridea (C.) oblongus n. sp. 
Cytherideis mayeri (Howe and Garrett) 
Cytherella sp. 

Cytherella bullata Alexander 
Cytherella tuberculifera Alexander 
Cytherella ovata (Roemer) 
Cytherella herricki n. sp. 
Cytherelloidea (?) cuneiforma n. sp. 
Cytherelloidea sivaini n. sp. 
Cytherelloidea sohni n. sp. 
Cytherelloidea andrewsi n. sp. 
Cytherelloidea greenensis n. sp. 
Cytherelloidea inflata n. sp. 
Cytheropteron (C.) penderensis n. sp. 
Cytheropteron (E.) straJus n. sp. 
Cytheropteron (E.) striatum n. sp. 
Cytherura glossensis n. sp. 
Eucytherura curta (Jennings) 
Loxoconcha neusensis n. sp. 
Loxoconcha seraphae n. sp. 
Monoceratina biloba Schmidt 
Orthonotacythere sulcata n. sp. 
Orthonotacythere hannai (Israelsky) 
Orthonotacythere tarensis n. sp. 
Platycythereis costatana anguta (Schmidt) 
Protocythere paratriplicata Swain 
Progonocythere casweLensis n. sp. 
Trachyleberis bassleri (Ulrich) 
Trachyleberis communis (Israelsky) 
Trachyleberis gapensis (Alexander) 
Trachyleberis pidgeoni (Berry) 
Trachyleberis (?) praecursora n. sp. 
Velarocy there arachoides (Berry) 
Velarocy there cacumenata n. sp. 
Velarocythere eikonata n. sp. 
V elarocy there legrandi n. sp. 
Velarocythere scuff eltonensis n. sp. 

Key to symbols used in chart 

A — abundant, more than 25 specimens. 

C — common, more than 15 specimens. 

R — rare, 5 or more specimens. 
VR — very rare, less than 5 specimens. 

X — denotes occurrence in subsurface samples from water wells. 
Average sample 500 grams. 



PEEDEE LOCALI 


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X 


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X 



Figure 2. Checklist denoting occurrence and abundance of specimens in outcrop and occurrence of specimens in water wells. 



28 



Plates 1-7 



29 



Figures 

1-2. Cytherella sp. (p. 8) 

1. Right valve, exterior, x 55, Loc. B, U.S.N.M. 128897 

2. Right valve, interior, x 61, Loc. A, U.S.N.M. 128898 
3-5. Cytherella tuberculifera Alexander (p. 7) 

3. Left side view, complete specimen, x 63, Loc. A, U.S.N.M. 128890 

4. Right valve, exterior, x 60, Loc. A, U.S.N.M. 128891 

5. Dorsal view, complete specimen, x 54, Loc. A, U.S.N.M. 128892 
6-7. Cytherella bullata Alexander (p. 7) 

6. Right side view, complete specimen, x 50, Loc. J, U.S.N.M. 128887 

7. Left side view, complete specimen, x 52, Loc. G, U.S.N.M. 128888 
8-11. Cytherella herricki Brown, n. sp. (p. 8) 

8. Left side view, holotype, x 56, Loc. A, U.S.N.M. 128893 

9. Right side view, paratype, x 54, Loc. A, U.S.N.M. 128894 

10. Left valve, interior, x 62, Loc. C, U.S.N.M. 128895 

11. Dorsal view, paratype, x 52, Loc. A, U.S.N.M. 128896 

12. Cytherella ovata (Roemer) (p. 7) 

Left side view, complete specimen, female, x 55, Loc. F, U.S.N.M. 
128889 

13-15. Cytherelloidea (?) cuneiforma Brown, n. sp., (p. 8) 

13. Left side view, paratype, x 56, Loc. A ; U.S.N.M. 128902 

14. Right side view, holotype, x 59, Loc. A, U.S.N.M. 128903 

15. Dorsal view, paratype, x 57, Loc. C, U.S.N.M. 128904 
16-19. Cytherelloidea swaini Brown, n. sp. (p. 8) 

16. Ventral view, holotype, x 63, Loc. A, U.S.N.M. 128899 

17. Left side view, holotype, x 60, Loc. A, U.S.N.M. 128899 

18. Left side view, paratype, x 57, Loc. E, U.S.N.M. 128900 

19. Dorsal view, paratype, x 56, Loc. A, U.S.N.M. 128901 
20, 21, 25. Cytherelloidea inflata Brown, n. sp. (p. 10) 

20. Right side view, holotype, x 66, Loc. E, U.S.N.M. 128914 

21. Dorsal view, paratype, x 65, Loc. E, U.S.N.M. 128915 

25. Left side view, paratype, x 64, Loc. E, U.S.N.M. 128916 
22, 23, 26, 29. Cytherelloidea greenensis Brown, n. sp. (p. 9) 

22. Dorsal view, paratype, x 63, Loc. A, U.S.N.M. 128908 

23. Right side view, holotype, x 63, Loc. A, U.S.N.M. 128909 

26. Right side view, paratype, x 60, Loc. A, U.S.N.M. 128910 
29. Ventral view, holotype, x 62, Loc. A, U.S.N.M. 128909 

24, 27, 28. Cytherelloidea andrewsi Brown, n. sp. (p. 9) 

24. Left side view, paratype, male, x 59, Loc. C, U.S.N.M. 128911 

27. Left side view, holotype, female, x 55, Loc. A, U.S.N.M. 128912 

28. Dorsal view, paratype, male, x 61, Loc. C, U.S.N.M. 128913 



Plate 2 

Figures 

1-3. Cytherelloidea sohni Brown, n. pp. (p. 9) 

1. Left side view, paratype, x 59, Loc. A, U.S.N.M. 128905 

2. Right side view, holotype, x 59, Loc. A, U.S.N.M. 128906 

3. Dorsal view, left valve, x 62, Loc. A, U.S.N.M. 128907 
4-5. Cytheridea (Haplocytheridea) ulrichi (Berry) (p. 18) 

4. Right valve, male specimen, x 65, Loc. A, U.S.N.M. 128985 

5. Right side view, female specimen, x 56, Loc. D, U.S.N.M. 128986 

6. Cytheridea (Haplocytheridea) monmouthensis Berry (p. 19) 

Right side view, female specimen, x 55, Loc. J, U.S.N.M. 128994 

7-8. Cytheridea (Haplocytheridea) fabaformis (Berry) (p. 17) 

7. Left valve, female specimen, x 50, Loc. E, U.S.N.M. 128966 

8. Right valve, male specimen, x 48, Loc. E, U.S.N.M. 128967 
9-11. Cytheridea (Haplocytheridea) plummeri Alexander (p. 18) 

9. Left valve, male specimen, x 72, Loc. D, U.S.N.M. 128976 

10. Left valve, female specimen, x 55, Loc. D, U.S.N.M. 128977 

11. Interior view, right valve, male, x 69, Loc. A, U.S.N.M. 128978 
12-16. Cytheridea (Haplocytheridea) councilli Brown, n. sp. (p. 17) 

12. Right side view, holotype, x 62, Loc. A, U.S.N.M. 128971 

13. Right valve, interior, x 55, Loc. F, U.S.N.M. 128972 

14. Left valve, interior, x 52, Loc. F, U.S.N.M. 128973 

15. Dorsal view, female paratype, x 58, Loc. A, U.S.N.M. 128974 

16. Ventral view, male paratype, x 57, Loc. F, U.S.N.M. 128975 
17-20. Cytheridea (Haplocytheridea) carolinensis Brown, n. sp. (p. 19) 

17. Left valve, paratype, x 62, Loc. A, U.S.N.M. 128987 

18. Right side view, holotype, male, x 62, Loc. A, U.S.N.M. 128988 

19. Ventral view, paratype, male, x 62, Loc. A, U.S.N.M. 128989 

20. Left valve, interior, female, x 66, Loc. A, U.S.N.M. 128990 
£1-25. Cytheridea (Clithrocytheridea) oblongus Brown, n. sp. (p. 19) 

21. Left side view, holotype, x 63, Loc. A, U.S.N.M. 128995 

22. Right side view, paratype, x 63, Loc. F, U.S.N.M. 128996 

23. Left valve, interior, x 63, Loc. F, U.S.N.M. 128997 

24. Ventral view, paratype, x 61, Loc. A, U.S.N.M. 128998 

25. Dorsal view, paratype, x 61, Loc. A, U.S.N.M. 128999 
26-28. Cytheridea (Haplocytheridea) punctura (Schmidt) (p. 19) 

26. Left valve, female specimen, x 52, Loc. E, U.S.N.M. 128991 

27. Left valve, male specimen, x 52, Loc. E, U.S.N.M. 128992 

28. Left valve, interior, x 50, Loc. C, U.S.N.M. 128993 



Plate 3 

Figures 

1-3. Bairdia pittensis Brown, n. sp. (p. 10) 

1. Right valve, holotype, x 76, Loc. A, U.S.N.M. 128917 

2. Right valve, interior, holotype, x 77, Loc. A, U.S.N.M. 128917 

3. Left valve, interior, holotype, x 77, Loc. A, U.S.N.M. 128917 

4, 7, 8. Bairdoppilata pondera Jennings (p. 10) 

4. Right valve, interior, x 50, Loc. A, U.S.N.M. 128918 

7. Right side view, x 60, Loc. A, U.S.N.M. 128919 

8. Ventral view, x 60, Loc. A, U.S.N.M. 128920 

5, 6, 9. Bairdoppilata postextensa (Swain) (p. 10) 

5. Left side view, x 63, Loc. A, U.S.N.M. 128921 

6. Right side view, x 62, Loc. A, U.S.N.M. 128922 

9. Dorsal view, x 65, Loc. A, U.S.N.M. 128923 
10-11. Trachyleberis communis (Israelsky) (p. 14) 

10. Right valve, exterior, x 81, Loc. A, U.S.N.M. 128943 

11 Right valve, interior, x 77, Loc. A, U.S.N.M. 128944 

12-13. Cytherideis mayeri (Howe and Garrett) (p. 23) 

12. Right valve, exterior, x 63, Loc. A, U.S.N.M. 129022 

13. Right valve, interior, x 63, Loc. A, U.S.N.M. 129023 
14-15. Monoceratina biloba Schmidt (p. 23) 

14. Right valve, exterior, x 77, Loc. A, U.S.N.M. 129024 

15. Dorsal view, molt, x 83, Loc: This specimen is from a well (see 

p. 23). U.S.N.M. 129025 

16-17. Protocythere paratriplicata Swain (p. 16) 

16. Right side view, x 76, Loc. G, U.S.N.M. 128962 

17. Left valve, interior, x 66, Loc. J, U.S.N.M. 128963 



Figures 



Plate 4 



1-2. Alatacythere alata a'Aantica (Schmidt) (p. 13) 

1. Left valve, exterior, x 55, Loc. A, U.S.N.M. 128936 

2. Dorsal view, complete specimen, x 59, Loc. A, U.S.N.M. 128937 
3-4. Brachycythere nausiformis Swain (p. 12) 

3. Right valve, interior, male, x 61, Loc. I, U.S.N.M. 128929 

4. Right valve, exterior, female, x 57, Loc. I, U.S.N.M. 128930 
, 8-10. Brachycythere rhomboidalis (Berry) (p. 11) 

5. Left valve, exterior, x 66, Loc. B, U.S.N.M. 128925 

8. Right side view, complete specimen, x 54, Loc. A, U.S.N.M. 128926 

9. Exterior view, abraded left valve, x 54, Loc. C, U.S.N.M. 128927 

10. Dorsal view, right valve showing dentition, x 57, Loc. E, U.S.N.M. 

128928 

6. Brachycythere ledaforma (Israelsky) (p. 12) 

Right side view, complete specimen, x 62, Loc. H., U.S.N.M. 128932 

7. Brachycythere plena Alexander (p. 12) 

Right valve, exterior, x 58, Loc. E, U.S.N.M. 128931 
11-13. Brachycythere raleighensis Brown, n. sp. (p. 13) 

11. Right side view, holotype, x 61, Loc. A, U.S.N.M. 128933 

12. Ventral view, paratype, x 55, Loc. F, U.S.N.M. 128934 

13. Dorsal view, paratype, x 63, Loc. F, U.S.N.M. 128935 
14-15. Progonocy there caswellensis Brown, n. sp. (p. 16) 

14. Left valve, exterior, holotype, x 52, Loc. C, U.S.N.M. 128964 

15. Right valve, exterior, paratype, x 53, Loc. C, U.S.N.M. 128965 

16. Brachycythere sphenoides (Reuss) (p. 11) 

Right side view, complete specimen, x 60, Loc. K, U.S.N.M. 128924 









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Plate 5 

Figures 

1-4. V 'elarocy there legravdi Brown, n. sp. (p. 21) 

1. Right side view, holotype, x 59, Loc. A, U.S.N.M. 129011 

2. Left side view, holotype, x 59, Loc. A, U.S.N.M. 129011 

3. Right valve, interior, paratype, x 57, Loc. A, U.S.N.M. 129012 

4. Right valve, exterior, paratype, x 61, Loc. C, U.S.N.M. 129012 
5-9. Velarocythere scuff eltoncnsis Brown, n. gen., n. sp. (p. 21) 

5. Right valve, interior, paratype, male, x 71, Loc. A, U.S.N.M. 129006 

6. Left valve interior, paratype, male, x 65, Loc. A, U.S.N.M. 129007 

7. Right side view, paratype, male, x 58, Loc. C, U.S.N.M. 129008 

8. Left side view, holotype, female, x 56, Loc. A, U.S.N.M. 129009 

9. Dorsal view, paratype, x 56, Loc. F, U.S.N.M. 129010 
10-12. Velarocythere eikonata Brown, n. sp. (p. 22) 

10. Right side view, holotype, female, x 66, Loc. A, U.S.N.M. 129016 

11. Left side view, paratype, male, x 62, Loc. A, U.S.N.M. 129017 

12. Dorsal view, paratype, x 64, Loc. F, U.S.N.M. 129018 
13-15. Velarocythere cacumenata Brown, n. sp. (p. 21) 

13. Right side view, paratype, female, x 66, Loc. A, U.S.N.M. 129013 

14. Left side view, holotype, male, x 58, Loc. A, U.S.N.M. 129014 

15. Dorsal view, paratype, female, x 61, Loc. C, U.S.N.M. 129015 
16-18. Velarocythere arachoides (Berry) (p. 22) 

16. Right valve, interior, x 77, Loc. A, U.S.N.M. 129019 

17. Right side view, instar, x 81, Loc. E, U.S.N.M. 129020 

18. Dorsal view of right valve showing dentition, x 79, Loc. A, U.S.N.M. 

129021 



Plate 6 

Figures 

1-2. Orthonotacy there tarewsis Brown, n. sp. (p. 24) 

1. Left side view, holotype, female, x 63, Loc. I, U.S.N.M. 129035 

2. Dorsal view, paratype, male, x 59, Loc. H, U.S.N.M. 129036 
3-5. Orthonotacy there hannai (Israelsky) (p. 24) 

3. Left side view, x 62, Loc. D, U.S.N.M. 129032 

4. Right side view, x 61, Loc. D, U.S.N.M. 129033 

5. Ventral view, x 59, Loc. E, U.S.N.M. 129034 
6-8. Orthonotacy there sulcata Brown, n. sp. (p. 23) 

6. Right valve, exterior, paratype, x 65, Loc. G, U.S.N.M. 129029 

7. Left side view, holotype, x 62, Loc. G, U.S.N.M. 129030 

8. Ventral view, paratype, x 64, Loc. G, U.S.N.M. 129031 
9, 11. Loxoconcha seravhae Brown, n. sp. (p. 23) 

9. Left side view, holotype, x 63, Loc. C, U.S.N.M. 129027 

11. Right side view, paratype, x 58, Loc. C, U.S.N.M. 129028 
10. Loxoconcha neusensis Brown, n. sp. (p. 23) 

Left side view, holotype, x 58, Loc. E, U.S.N.M. 129026 

12-13. Cytheropteron (Cytheropteron) penderensis Brown, n. sp. (p. 20) 

12. Right valve, exterior, paratype, x 66, Loc. C, U.S.N.M. 129000 

13. Left valve, exterior, holotype, x 60, Loc. A, U.S.N.M. 129001 
14-15. Cytheropteron (Eocytheropteron) straillis Brown, n. sp. (p. 20) 

14. Left valve, exterior, paratype, x 61, Loc. D, U.S.N.M. 129002 

15. Right valve, exterior, holotype, x 60, Loc. F, U.S.N.M. 129003 
16-17. Cytheropteron (Eocytheropteron) striatum Brown, n. sp. (p. 20) 

16. Left side view, holotype, female, x 66, Loc. G, U.S.N.M. 129004 

17. Right side view, paratype, male, x 64, Loc. K, U.S.N.M. 129005 
18-19. Cythcrura glessensis Brown, n. sp. (p. 25) 

18. Right side view, holotype, x 59, Loc. A, U.S.N.M. 129037 

19. Left side view, paratype, x 57, Loc. A, U.S.N.M. 129038 
20-21. Eucythcrura curta (Jennings) (p. 25) 

20. Left side view, x 63, Loc. D, U.S.N.M. 129039 

21. Right side view, x 65, Loc. E, U.S.N.M. 129040 
22-25. Platycythereis costatana angula (Schmidt) (p. 15) 

22. Left side view, x 59, Loc. A, U.S.N.M. 128958 

23. Right side view, x 55, Loc. A, U.S.N.M. 128959 

24. Ventral view, x 54, Loc. C, U.S.N.M. 128960 

25. Dorsal view, x 61, Loc. C, U.S.N.M. 128961 



Plate 7 

Figures 

1-3. Cytheridea (Haplo cytheridea) sarectaensis Brown, n. sp. (p. 17) 

1. Left valve, exterior, female, x 53, Loc. E, U.S.N.M. 128968 

2. Ventral view, holotype, x 54, Loc. E, U.S.N.M. 128969 

3. Right valve, exterior, paratype, male, x 47, Loc. E, U.S.N.M. 128970 
4-9. Cytheridea (Haplocytheridea) wilmingtonensis Brown, n. sp. (p. 18) 

4. Dorsal view, paratype, x 61, Loc. A, U.S.N.M. 128979 

5. Ventral view, paratype, x 68, Loc. A, U.S.N.M. 128980 

6. Left valve, interior, x 67, Loc. A, U.S.N.M. 128981 

7. Left side view, holotype, x 73, Loc. A, U.S.N.M. 128982 

8. Dorsal view, left valve showing dentition, x 73, Loc. A, U.S.N.M. 

128983 

9. Dorsal view, paratype, x 78, Loc. A, U.S.N.M. 128984 
10-14. Trachyleberis bassleri (Ulrich) (p. 13) 

10. Right valve, exterior, x 48, Loc. F, U.S.N.M. 128938 

11. Left side view, complete specimen, x 49, Loc. A, U.S.N.M. 128939 

12. Right side view, complete specimen, x 55, Loc. F, U.S.N.M. 128940 

13. Ventral view, instar, x 58, Loc. A, U.S.N.M. 128941 

14. Dorsal view, x 53, Loc. F, U.S.N.M. 128942 
15-19. Trachyleberis gapensis (Alexander) (p. 14) 

15. Right side view, female specimen, x 64, Loc. I, U.S.N.M. 128947 

16. Right side view, male specimen, x 63, Loc. I, U.S.N.M. 128948 

17. Right valve, interior, male, x 60, Loc. I, U.S.N.M. 128949 

18. Ventral view, x 63, Loc. H, U.S.N.M. 128950 

19. Dorsal view, x 75, Loc. A, U.S.N.M. 128951 
20-25. Trachyleberis (?) praecursora Brown, n. sp. (p. 15) 

20. Right side view, holotype, x 66, Loc. A, U.S.N.M. 128952 

21. Left side view, paratype, x 66, Loc. F, U.S.N.M. 128953 

22. Left valve, interior, paratype, x 68, Loc. F, U.S.N.M. 128954 

23. Dorsal view, paratype, x 72, Loc. A, U.S.N.M. 128955 

24. Ventral view, paratype, x 67, Loc. A, U.S.N.M. 128956 

25. Dorsal view, left valve, paratype, x 66, Loc. A, U.S.N.M. 128957 
26-27. Trachyleberis pidgeoni (Berry) (p. 14) 

26. Right valve, exterior, male, x 60, Loc. A, U.S.N.M. 128945 

27. Left valve, exterior, female, x 59, Loc. A, U.S.N.M. 128946 



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